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Slide 1

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OCR; Religious Ethics…read more

Slide 2

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· Also called shallow ecology
· Plants and animals only have instrumental
value and not intrinsic value ­ they are
useful because they are useful for us
· This theory is anthropocentric (human
· Humans have intrinsic value ­ only humans
have true moral worth and standing
· Philosophers such as La Bossiere suggest
that this approach can be justified as a part
of the natural order of evolution; if a species
becomes naturally extinct due to humanity's
actions then this is acceptable.…read more

Slide 3

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· Our desire to advance technologically
conflicts with the surrounding environment
· Impact on non-human entities could have a
huge impact on human prosperity in the
· Impact due to human actions could also
affect future human generations…read more

Slide 4

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Discrimination in
LIBERTARIANISM favour of one species
over another
· Also called deep ecology
· Rejects anthropocentric theories as speciesist
· Recognises all life forms as having intrinsic value
· Leopald; social conscience of humans should
extend to the environment
· Naess; all living things have rights (ecosophy)
· Try to preserve the biosphere for its own sake
· No species has the right to claim dominance
· Naess' solution:
· Significantly reduce population These ideas
· Abandon goals for economic growth have been
· Preserve and conserve species diversity rejected as
· Live in small, self-reliant communities too radical
· `touch the earth lightly' and
unrealistic…read more

Slide 5

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· Proposed by James Lovelock in 1977
· Suggests that the planet Earth is a massive,
self-regulating, biological organism
· Humankind is not indispensible to Earth
· The planet regulates itself in favour of life
· Even with extreme weather in the past, life
has always survived, evidenced by studying
fossils. Lovelock saw this as proof of Gaia's
organisation and intelligence
· Unless we value Gaia, our survival is
threatened because we ourselves are a threat
to Gaia…read more

Slide 6

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· Richard Dawkins claims that life coming
together for a mutual advantage is
inconceivable and basic evolutionary theory
disproves this completely. The scientific
theory of natural selection means species
adapted to altered conditions will survive.
· Lynn Margulis argues that Dawkins'
perspective and the Gaia hypothesis are
compatible when looking at symbiosis. This
is when two organisms have a mutually
beneficial relationship and, perhaps
unintentionally, help each other to survive.…read more

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Slide 9

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Slide 10

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Hafsa Depoti


very useful information however background makes it slightly difficult to read although very pretty

Hafsa Depoti


very useful information however background makes it slightly difficult to read although very pretty

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