OCR Chemistry Salters F331

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  • F331
    • Fuels
      • Octane Number
        • Tendency to auto-ignite
          • High octane No. decreases the tendency
      • Emissions
        • Hydrogen -> harmless water
          • Hydrogen from electrolysis of NaCl(aq)
            • Hydrocarbons -> CO2, CO, Sulphur  & Nitrogen compounds
              • Carbon particles from incomplete combustion
        • Hydrocarbons -> CO2, CO, Sulphur  & Nitrogen compounds
          • Carbon particles from incomplete combustion
      • Functional groups
        • Alcohol: C-OH
        • Halogenoalkane: C-Halogen
        • Aldehyde: CH=O
        • Alkene: C=C
        • Ketone: RCR=O
        • Alkane: C-H
        • Carboxylic acid: COH=O
        • Ether: COC
    • Energy  levels
      • Shielding
        • e's closer to a nucleus more attracted
        • More energy levels cause e's to be further from the nucleus
      • Spectra
        • Absorption
          • Black lines, coloured background.
        • Emission
          • Coloured lines, dark background
            • e's gain energy & are excited
              • They move to higher E levels
                • Drop back emitting a photon
                  • E levels are specific
                    • Lines of specific frequency formed
    • Enthalpy
      • Longer chains, greater enthalpy, as more bonds broken, same No. formed of the same type.
        • Fuels
          • Octane Number
            • Tendency to auto-ignite
              • High octane No. decreases the tendency
          • Emissions
            • Hydrogen -> harmless water
              • Hydrogen from electrolysis of NaCl(aq)
            • Functional groups
              • Alcohol: C-OH
              • Halogenoalkane: C-Halogen
              • Aldehyde: CH=O
              • Alkene: C=C
              • Ketone: RCR=O
              • Alkane: C-H
              • Carboxylic acid: COH=O
              • Ether: COC
        • Hess's Law
          • Enthalpy change is the same, regardless of the route taken, provided the conditions stay the same.
          • To find the  enthalpy change
            • E to break all bonds in reactants = DH + E to make all bonds in products
        • Catalysis
          • Heterogeneous
            • Different state to reactants
            • Reactants are adsorbed onto the surface
              • Bonds in reactants weaken and break.
                • New bond for in the products
                  • Products diffuse away
            • Zeolites
              • Porous to increase SA
          • Homogeneous
            • Same state as reactants
          • Provide an alternate route with a lower activation energy
        • Enthalpy change with water = mcDT
          • -ve's: Heat loss to surroundings, not standard conditions, incomplete combustion, evaporation from wick
        • Entropy: the measure of disorder of a system, gases having the greatest entropy
      • Shapes & Formula
        • Isomers: same atoms, different shape
        • Structural formula: letters & bonds
        • Skeletal formula: just bonds
        • Bond angles
          • 2 areas of e density: 180
          • 3 areas of e density: 120
          • 4 areas of e density: 109
          • 6 areas of e density: 90
          • Areas of electron density repel to move as far away as possible from each other
        • Empirical formula: simplest ratio of atoms
        • Molecular formula: just letters
        • Systematic name
          • Longest chain on alkane
            • Any functional groups added as prefix
              • If more than one possible isomer, numbering always starts from the end that would give the functional groups the smallest possible number
                • If there is more than one functional gorup, they are placed in alphabetical order

    Comments

    Michael Herron

    Sorry, there seems to be some formatting bugs in the software.

    Georgia

    This is really useful! thanks 

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