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Element Symbol Flame
colour
lithium Li red
sodium Na yellow…read more

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Element Properties Typical use
Chlorine Green gas Sterilising water
Orange Making pesticides
Bromine
liquid and plastics
Iodine Grey solid Sterilising wounds…read more

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Dot and cross model The
formation of ionic compounds is
often shown with dot and cross
models.
For example, a sodium atom
loses one electron from its outer
shell to become a positively
charged sodium ion.
Metal ions
In some circumstances metal atoms may Non-metal ions
lose electrons. The atom then has more Non-metal atoms may gain electrons and
protons than electrons and so it will be become negatively charged.
positively charged, a positive ion.…read more

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Newlands' Table Mendeleev's Table
Ordered elements by atomic weight Ordered elements by atomic weight
Included only the elements known at the Left gaps for elements he predicted
time would be discovered later
Maintained a strict order of atomic Swapped the order of some elements if
weights that fitted their properties better
Every eighth element had similar Elements in groups had similar
properties (Newlands' Law Of Octaves) properties
Was criticised by other scientists for Was seen as a curiosity to begin with,
grouping some elements with others but then as a useful tool when the
when they were obviously very different predicted elements were discovered
to each other later…read more

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