First 168 words of the document:
Psychology unit 4 research methods
Controlled observations: when the observer manipulates the situation
Naturalistic observations: when the situations isn't manipulated or when you
observe what is around you.
Is needed before an observation is carried out. These will include any physical
behaviour such as crying but not emotions like sadness. A pilot study is then
needed to check if the behavioural categories are well understood and to see if
the 2 observers are reliable by correlating the results to see if they are the same.
In an observation, 2 observers are needed to ensure behaviours aren't missed out.
Problems with overt observations mean participants are put at risk of demand
characteristics meaning results will be invalid. Also observations can't establish
cause and effect relationships as no variables are controlled. However if they are
used alongside an experiment then cause and effect can be established as
variables are controlled.