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Research methods revision
Naturalistic: when the situation is not manipulated or when you observe
what is around you
Controlled: when the observer manipulates the situation
Before an observation is carried out a behavioural checklist must be created.
These will include any physical behaviour such as crying but not emotions such
as sadness. After this, a pilot study must be conducted to check if you have
enough behavioural categories and that those categories are well adapted
(clearly understood) and check if the 2 observers are reliable by correlating
the results to see if the results are the same. More than 1 observer is needed
in the observation to ensure no behaviours are missed out, so 2 observers must
be used.
There are problems with observations such as with overt observations (when
participants know they are being watched) as that puts them at risk of demand
characteristics (when a participant knows they are being watched so they
change their behaviour accordingly) meaning the results will be invalid. Also
observations on their own can't establish cause and effect relationships unless
they are being used alongside an experiment because no variables are
controlled in an observation


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