here are my notes on respiration, they are all my notes from lessons arranged  in a way that makes sense to me and have not been cut down into revision yet... Hope these help :)

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Metabolism: Chemical reactions that occur in living cells.
Metabolic pathways: A series of chemical reactions which lead to an end result.
Metabolites: The intermediates that a shortage/absence of can lead to a stalling of the pathway
Anabolism: Making larger more complex molecules from simpler ones. (E.g. Photosynthesis and
Protein synthesis)
Catabolism: The breaking down of complex molecules into simpler ones via hydrolysis. (E.g.
ATP is produced and used in both Anabolism and Catabolism.
In respiration energy is released as heat and ATP is generated.
ATP: Adenosine TriPhosphate
Note the similarity between ATP and a RNA nucleotide caused by the phosphorylated
When it is hydrolysed to ADP 30.6kJ mol-1 is released.
ATP is known as universal energy currency as it is used by all living things.
Why is ATP known as the universal energy currency?
Used by cells during active transport to move ions across the membrane
Used in secretion for example exocytosis requires ATP
Used during endocytosis to bulk transport into cells
Used during DNA replication
Used during the movement of flagella

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Used in the activation of chemicals such as phosphorylation of glucose.
ATP is made from ADP via phosphorylation this is achieved by adding inorganic phosphate to ADP in
the following 3 types...
1. Oxidate
2. Photosynthetic
3. Substrate
1. Oxidate Phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria as ATP is created as H+ flood back
into the matrix in the presence of O2. The energy used is provided by the electron transfer
chain in which O2 acts as the final electron acceptor.
2.…read more

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Glycolysis: The splitting of glucose to make 2 pyruvates.
2. The Link Reaction: The pyruvate is oxidized and becomes Acetyl co enzyme A.
3. Kreb's Cycle: Electrons and CO2 are removed from acetyl co enzyme A.
4. Electron Transfer Chain: Electrons move down cytochromes producing most of the ATP in
1. Glycolysis in more detail...
Glycolysis occurs outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell. It follows the process...
First 2 molecules of ATP react with glucose, donating phosphates to the glucose.…read more

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Electron transfer chain in more detail (ETC)...
The electron transfer chain is on the surface of the Cristae sticking out of the matrix (found on the
infolded membrane of Cristae). The NADH and FADH2 produced by Kreb's cycle provide electrons for
the ETC. The Hs are removed by the enzyme dehydrogenase.
This is like the ETC in photosynthesis.
Anaerobic respiration
Overexertion: At times of high demand the mitochondrial activity lags as ATP need increases.…read more

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Don't forget to mention...
Whereabouts everything happens
Where the various enzymes and coenzymes come in
Number of Carbons at every stage
That the whole thing is dominated by oxidation and reduction
Evidence of Chemiosmosis
In 1961 Peter Mitchell suggested that build up of H+ in the intermembraneous space would perhaps
be a source of potential energy for ATP production. (Proton motive force)
To test the build up of H+ theory scientists put mitochondria into water with a low water potential.…read more


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