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Respiration

Metabolism: Chemical reactions that occur in living cells.

Metabolic pathways: A series of chemical reactions which lead to an end result.

Metabolites: The intermediates that a shortage/absence of can lead to a stalling of the pathway

Anabolism: Making larger more complex molecules from simpler ones. (E.g. Photosynthesis and
Protein…

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Used in the activation of chemicals such as phosphorylation of glucose.

ATP is made from ADP via phosphorylation this is achieved by adding inorganic phosphate to ADP in
the following 3 types...

1. Oxidate
2. Photosynthetic
3. Substrate



1. Oxidate Phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria as ATP is created…

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1. Glycolysis: The splitting of glucose to make 2 pyruvates.
2. The Link Reaction: The pyruvate is oxidized and becomes Acetyl co enzyme A.
3. Kreb's Cycle: Electrons and CO2 are removed from acetyl co enzyme A.
4. Electron Transfer Chain: Electrons move down cytochromes producing most of the ATP…

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4. Electron transfer chain in more detail (ETC)...

The electron transfer chain is on the surface of the Cristae sticking out of the matrix (found on the
infolded membrane of Cristae). The NADH and FADH2 produced by Kreb's cycle provide electrons for
the ETC. The Hs are removed by the…

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Don't forget to mention...

Whereabouts everything happens
Where the various enzymes and coenzymes come in
Number of Carbons at every stage
That the whole thing is dominated by oxidation and reduction

Evidence of Chemiosmosis

In 1961 Peter Mitchell suggested that build up of H+ in the intermembraneous space would perhaps…

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