Music revsion notes

Here are all my classwork notes condensed in to 20 pages. It covers everything you need to know for section A and section B. Koko-yiri and Capacaille are missing as we were giving the edexcel guide for those two peices. Good luck for your exam!

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Moby- Why does my heart feel so Bad?
Released from the album play in 1999
Most of the piece is made up of samples- Gospel Choir and a hip-hop drum beat
Synthesized strings, a sub bass and a keyboard
Two different vocal Samples from the gospel Choir in 1953- left the background noise
in, made it more authentic. (ghosting)
"Why does my heart feel so bad" and "Why does my soul feel so bad" are the verse and
"These open doors" are like a chorus. "These open doors" are looped in the Chorus
The chords used in the beginning 8-bar verse are A minor, E minor, G major and D
When "These open doors" is played the chords are C major and A minor, the chord
pattern is C, C, Am, Am, C, C, Am, Am. When the sample is looped an F major cord is
added. F, F, C, C, F, F, C, C.
Tempo- Allegro
Texture- Homophonic. Builds up Gradually, Piano in the intro after 8 bars more
instruments are added.
Rhythm- 4/4 ­ four beats in a bar
Timbre- Dub set, Piano, Voice, Synthesizer and Tape recorder
Duration- Accompaniment, short notes, crotchets, and Quavers. Voice, long notes,
Dynamics- Fortissimo.
Techniques, EQ, Reverb, Delay syncopation on the piano and Echo.
Harmony- Diatonic
Tonality- Intro/verse is in a minor key. Choruses are in a major key. Contrast given by
using major/minor. Vocals are in A Minor.
Structure- Verse-chorus Structure. ( Strophic Form) or AB structure
Quick Questions
What is a Sub Bass? ­ A bass line that is lower than a normal electric bass guitar. It makes the
speakers shake and you can feel the Music.
Define Synthesizer, Sequencer, Samples and Sampler.- Samples are short bits of recorded music,
Samplers are told which samples to play by a sequencer or keyboard controller. Samplers,
Synthesizers and sequencers mean that you don't have to be able to play any of the instruments you

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You can just use a computer. It doesn't actually record sound it just uses
the MIDI information. (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
Name three Instruments used in Moby's Why does my heart Feel so bad? - Hip-hop drum kit,
synthesized strings, a sub bass and a Keyboard.
Indian Raga
A raga is set of notes which are combined to create a particular mood.
Raga performances are improvised but based on traditional rhythms, they are passed down
through aural traditions.
Traditional Instruments
Sitar- long-necked stringed instruments.…read more

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The sitar improvises around the Tambura and it is the combination of the two that give the
Usually tonic and dominant keys are used for the drone.
The Alap- The sitar introduces the notes from the raga- improving freely, there is no beat or
pulse. The only accompaniment is the Tambura drone.
The Jhor- The music speed up, just the Tambura and sitar, more rhythmic and the improvised
melody takes on a steady beat.…read more

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In the next section, the tabla comes in playing a steady rhythm. The Bansuri play an
improvised melody. It's faster than the alap. The gat is based on the rupak tala which has
7 beats
In the second gat the raga is a lot faster. The tabla plays a fast complicated rhythm using
the 12-beat ektal tala. The melody on the Bansuri is structured and pre-composed.
The version is divided into 3 tracks on CD- first the alap then the two gats.…read more

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The Baroque Period
Major and Minor Keys introduced to write tonal music
Modulating ( changing keys) to create a contrast in music
New structures introduced- binary, Ternary and Rondo
Dynamics suddenly change, terraced dynamics
The melodies are built up from small motifs- a lot of repetition
Harmonies are simple, made up of tonic and dominant chords
A lot of ornaments are used to make the piece more interesting
Texture is often contrapuntal (polyphonic ­ more than one tune playing at the same time) or
Heterophonic-…read more

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The last section is about his resurrection.
The piece is in A major though it modulates to E major and B major. The piece sounds happy
and joyful because the piece is in a major key.
Its allegro- quick and lively.
The time signature is in 3/4.
The texture varies. Most of the piece is Homophonic, but in some parts it is Heterophonic or
Polyphonic. In bars 97-107 all four vocals are singing different tunes at the same time.…read more

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In what year was the "messiah" written? ­ 1741
Describe the dynamics used in the Baroque period. - Sudden Changes, Terraced dynamics
What is the Key signature and what does it modulate to? A Major and modulates to E
major and B major.…read more

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Tonality and harmony
Atonal- no key
Hexachords- six notes from the 12 different semitones. The six semitones not used in the
hexachord are called the complement.
Rhythm, Tempo and Time signature
Rhythms are complex and varied and change quickly.
The time sig changes between 3/4, 2/4 and 4/4
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian composer. He was born in Salzburg in 1756 and
later settled in Vienna. Today his compositions are some of the most popular and
well-known pieces from the Classical period.…read more

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The symphony
The symphony was a very important form during the Classical and
Romantic periods. A symphony is a large-scale orchestral work
intended to be played in the concert hall. It is usually in four
movements. The standard Classical form is:
1st movement: Allegro (fast) in sonata form
2nd movement: Slow
3rd movement: Minuet (a dance with three beats in a bar)
4th movement: Allegro
Notice that the first movement is in sonata form. Sonata form has three main sections:
exposition, development and recapitulation.…read more

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It has the standard four movements and is scored for:
woodwind ­ flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons
brass ­ two horns
strings - 1st violins, 2nd violins, cellos and double basses
There are no trumpets or timpani (kettledrums).
Mozart - Symphony No. 40: movement 1
In the following pages we will look at the first movement of Symphony No. 40 in more
detail. Remember this movement is in sonata form, so it has three sections: exposition,
development and recapitulation.…read more


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