Multi-Store Model

AQA,A Memory

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Question (Question);Answer (Answer)
Devised by;"Atkinson and Shiffrin."
Models are;"theories based on information-processing
The components are;"the short term memory, long term
memory and the sensory memory."
The short term memory is;"a temporary store where small
amounts of information can be held for brief periods of time.
It is fragile so information is lost from it easily."
The sensory memory is;"a set of limited capacity,
modality-specific stores that can hold information for a very
brief period of time."
The long term memory is;"a permanent store where limitless
amounts of information can be stored for long periods of
Constraints of the stores are;"capacity, duration and
Capacity is;"the amount of information that can be held in
the store at any one time."
Duration is;"the length of time that memories can be held
Encoding is;"the way in which information is represented in
the store."
The MSM is a structural model of memory. This means
it;"focuses on the components not transferral."
Information enters the sensory memory from;"the
Attention transfers information from;"the sensory memory
to the STM."
Rehearsal transfers information from;"the STM to the LTM."
The rehearsal loop;"keeps information in the STM."
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The duration of the sensory memory is;"very brief; less than
2 seconds."
The encoding of the sensory memory is;"information in its
unprocessed form."
You cannot control what enters the sensory memory
because;"information is passively registered."
The three separate stores within the sensory memory
are;"the iconic store, the echoic store and the haptic store."
The iconic store is for;"visual input."
The echoic store is for;"auditory input."
The haptic store is for;"tactile input.…read more

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Sperling's explanation for his tests on the capacity of the
sensory memory was;"that the capacity of the iconic store of
the sensory memory was 9-10 items but the duration of the
sensory memory was so short that people forgot the letters
as they recalled the first 4-5."
Methodological issues for Sperling's test on the capacity of
the sensory memory are;"high internal validity because it
was a highly controlled laboratory experiment with
replicatable results, but low external validity because it used
artificial stimuli.…read more

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The duration of the STM is;"18 seconds."
The duration of the STM was calculated using an experiment
where;"participants were asked to recall consonant trigrams
with different length delays between presentation and
recall. There was 80% accuracy of recall after 3 seconds but
only 10% accuracy after 18 seconds.…read more

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Displacement is;"a type of forgetting where items currently
in the limited capacity STM are pushed out to make room for
incoming items before being transferred to the LTM."
A free recall task is;"a way of testing memory where
participants recall items from a list in any order."
The recency effect is where;"items at the end of a list in a
free recall task are remembered well because they are still in
the STM.…read more

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Interference is;"a type of forgetting where information
stored in the LTM is confused with similar information."
Glanzer and Cunitz' experiment showed the existence of the
STM and LTM as separate stores by;"testing participants with
a free recall task in 2 different conditions; immediate recall
and delayed recall with a distracter task between
presentation and recall."
The findings of Glanzer and Cunitz' experiment were;"that
the distracter task disrupted the recency effect, but not the
primacy effect.…read more

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Pseudo-words are;"a combination of letters that sound like
they should be an English word but actually the word doesn't
Information has been shown to be able to go from the LTM
to the STM because;"pseudo-words are less memorable than
real words.…read more

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