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B3-3 : Microbiology
Growing Microbes
The study of microorganisms is called microbiology. These include
bacteria, viruses and fungi, all too small to be seen by the naked eye. Many
microorganisms can be grown in a lab, where we can research them and
find out what they need to survive ­…

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however, when there is a large number of yeast cells, they can survive
longer without oxygen and so can respire anaerobically, breaking down
sugars into ethanol.
Yeast is used to produce bread and alcoholic drinks. In bread production,
the yeast grows and respires ­ producing carbon dioxide which causes the…

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completely, unlike with yoghurts. Enzymes are also added to help separate
the milk ­ when it has completely curdled, you can see separate curds
from the liquid whey. The curds can then be used to make cheeses, whey
generally goes on to be animal feed.
Next, the curds are mixed…

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graph above shows bacterial growth for real-life conditions, not the
suitable, convenient conditions we give microbes in an industrial fermenter.
A new substance was discovered not long ago, a food based on fungi, and it
is called mycoprotein. It is produced using the fungus Fusarium, which
grows and…

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when the penicillin ran out. However, several months later they were
prepared and saved the life of a child. Unfortunately, Fleming's original
mould was hard to harvest on a mass scale, but a mould growing on a
melon was discovered which yielded more than 200 times the penicillin
from before.…

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In China's biodigesters, they will put anything in there ­ vegetables, human
and animal faeces and urine, etc ­ which produces low quality gas but high
amounts of fertiliser.
On the other hand, in India (where there are social taboos against using
human waste), only animal waste is fed in…


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