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The Flow of Memory
· Encoding Changing information so that it can be stored
· Storage Holding information in the memory system
· Retrieval Recovering information from storage…read more

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The Multi-store Explanation
· Sensory quickly discarded information, 4-5 seconds (not encoded)
· Short-term memory 5-9 pieces of information, 15-30 seconds
(encoding- senses such as acoustic and visual)
· Rehearse
· Long-term memory stored indefinitely with an unlimited capacity
(encoding- semantic, given a meaning/understanding)…read more

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Key Study- Murdock 1962
· Aim: Wanted to investigate free recall and its effect on memory and to
provide evidence to support the multi-store explanation
· Method: Participants given a list of words to remember. They were asked to
recall them in any order
· Results: The words at the end of the list had been recalled first, words at the
start recorded quite well and words in the middle of the list were not recalled
quite so well
· Conclusion: When asked to recall a list of words, we remember the first and
last sections well as the last are kept as short-term memory, the first are
rehearsed and kept as long-term memory and the middle are discarded…read more

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· Lacks ecological validity we do not often learn lists of words ­ it is not
relevant to the real world
· Understanding something/giving it a semantic meaning will help us
remember something more than just repeating it over and over
· We learn some things naturally without rehearsing them
· It is a very simple way of explaining memory
Practical Applications
· Phone numbers chunking: recall numbers in groups of 3-4
· Number plates on cars learn the letters/ numbers in chunks…read more

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The Primacy and Recency Effects
· Primacy Effect The first information received is recalled better
than subsequent information
· Recency Effect The information received later is recalled better
than earlier information…read more

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