Matter: Very Simple

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13 Matter: very simple
Revision Guide for Chapter 13
Contents
Student's Checklist
Revision Notes
Ideal gas .................................................................................................................................... 4
Ideal gas laws ............................................................................................................................ 4
Assumptions of kinetic theory of gases ..................................................................................... 5
Internal energy........................................................................................................................... 6
Specific thermal capacity........................................................................................................... 6
Conservation of energy ............................................................................................................. 7
Absolute temperature ................................................................................................................ 7
Root mean square speed .......................................................................................................... 8
Summary Diagrams (OHTs)
Boyle's law, density and number of molecules.......................................................................... 9
Change of pressure and volume with temperature ................................................................. 11
Ideal gas laws in pictures ........................................................................................................ 12
Kinetic theory of ideal gases.................................................................................................... 13
Kinetic energy of gas molecules.............................................................................................. 15
Transfers of energy to molecules ............................................................................................ 16
The speed of a molecule ......................................................................................................... 17
Advancing Physics A2 1

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Matter: very simple
Student's Checklist
Back to list of Contents
I can show my understanding of effects, ideas and
relationships by describing and explaining cases involving:
the behaviour of ideal gases
Revision Notes: Ideal gas; Ideal gas laws;
Summary Diagrams: Boyle's law, density and number of molecules; Change of pressure and
volume with temperature; Ideal gas laws in pictures
the kinetic theory of ideal gases
Revision Notes: Assumptions of kinetic theory of gases
Summary Diagrams: Kinetic theory of ideal gases
absolute (Kelvin) temperature as proportional…read more

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Matter: very simple
I can sketch, plot and interpret:
graphs showing relationships between p, V and T for an ideal gas
Revision Notes: Ideal gas laws;
Summary Diagrams: Change of pressure and volume with temperature; Ideal gas laws in
pictures
I can make calculations and estimates involving:
the universal gas law equation pV = NkT = nRT
Revision Notes: Ideal gas laws;
Summary Diagrams: Boyle's law, density and number of molecules; Change of pressure and
volume with temperature; Ideal gas laws in pictures
the equation…read more

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Matter: very simple
Revision Notes
Back to list of Contents
Ideal gas
An ideal gas is an abstraction from the fact that many real gases have closely similar
behaviour, in particular that the ratio p V / n T is very nearly the same for all of them at
sufficiently low pressure and high temperature.
An ideal gas obeys the ideal gas law: pV = NkT .…read more

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Matter: very simple
V
P1>P2
P2
O T
Charles' law
The pressure law: p / T = constant for constant n and V.
P
V1>V2
V2
O T
The pressure law
These laws can be combined into the general ideal gas law
pV =NkT where N is the number of molecules and k is the Boltzmann constant.…read more

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Matter: very simple
The kinetic theory gives, for the pressure p of volume V of an ideal gas:
pV = 1
3
Nm c 2 .…read more

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Matter: very simple
Conservation of energy
Imagine a closed boundary drawn around any set of objects, large or small. In a given time,
energy may enter across the boundary and energy may leave across the boundary. The
Principle of Conservation of Energy states that the change in energy within the boundary is
always exactly equal to the difference between that entering and that leaving. Energy is never
manufactured or destroyed.
The SI unit of energy is the joule.…read more

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Matter: very simple
Root mean square speed
The speeds of molecules in a gas vary around an average value. The distribution of speeds of
molecules in nitrogen at 300 K is shown below.
mean speed
most probable root mean
speed square speed
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
speed in metre per second
The peak of the distribution, the most probable speed, is at 422 m s-1. The mean speed is a
little larger, 476 m s-1.…read more

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Matter: very simple
Summary Diagrams (OHTs)
Back to list of Contents
Boyle's law, density and number of molecules
Boyle's law and gas density
1 2 pressure p
4 3
volume V
mass m
density d
Boyle's law:
compress gas to half volume: half as much gas in half volume: double mass of gas in same volume:
double pressure and density same pressure and density double pressure and density
1 2 1 2 pressure p 1 2
pressure 2p pressure 2p
4 3 4 3 4…read more

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Matter: very simple
Boyle's law and number of molecules
Two ways to double gas
pressure
molecules in box:
pressure due to impacts
N molecules in volume V of molecules with walls
of box
squash the gas cram in more molecules
decrease V increase N
piston squashes up same molecules into
add extra molecules to double the number,
half the volume, so doubles the number per
so double the number per unit volume
unit volume
N molecules
same: 2N molecules in volume V
number of molecules…read more

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