# Matter: Very Simple

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### Page 1

13 Matter: very simple

Revision Guide for Chapter 13

Contents

Student's Checklist

Revision Notes

Ideal gas .................................................................................................................................... 4

Ideal gas laws ............................................................................................................................ 4

Assumptions of kinetic theory of gases ..................................................................................... 5

Internal energy........................................................................................................................... 6

Specific thermal capacity........................................................................................................... 6

Conservation of energy ............................................................................................................. 7

Absolute temperature ................................................................................................................ 7

Root mean square…

Revision Guide for Chapter 13

Contents

Student's Checklist

Revision Notes

Ideal gas .................................................................................................................................... 4

Ideal gas laws ............................................................................................................................ 4

Assumptions of kinetic theory of gases ..................................................................................... 5

Internal energy........................................................................................................................... 6

Specific thermal capacity........................................................................................................... 6

Conservation of energy ............................................................................................................. 7

Absolute temperature ................................................................................................................ 7

Root mean square…

### Page 2

13 Matter: very simple

Student's Checklist

Back to list of Contents

I can show my understanding of effects, ideas and

relationships by describing and explaining cases involving:

the behaviour of ideal gases

Revision Notes: Ideal gas; Ideal gas laws;

Summary Diagrams: Boyle's law, density and number of molecules; Change of…

Student's Checklist

Back to list of Contents

I can show my understanding of effects, ideas and

relationships by describing and explaining cases involving:

the behaviour of ideal gases

Revision Notes: Ideal gas; Ideal gas laws;

Summary Diagrams: Boyle's law, density and number of molecules; Change of…

### Page 3

13 Matter: very simple

I can sketch, plot and interpret:

graphs showing relationships between p, V and T for an ideal gas

Revision Notes: Ideal gas laws;

Summary Diagrams: Change of pressure and volume with temperature; Ideal gas laws in

pictures

I can make calculations and estimates involving:

the universal…

I can sketch, plot and interpret:

graphs showing relationships between p, V and T for an ideal gas

Revision Notes: Ideal gas laws;

Summary Diagrams: Change of pressure and volume with temperature; Ideal gas laws in

pictures

I can make calculations and estimates involving:

the universal…

### Page 4

13 Matter: very simple

Revision Notes

Back to list of Contents

Ideal gas

An ideal gas is an abstraction from the fact that many real gases have closely similar

behaviour, in particular that the ratio p V / n T is very nearly the same for all of them at…

Revision Notes

Back to list of Contents

Ideal gas

An ideal gas is an abstraction from the fact that many real gases have closely similar

behaviour, in particular that the ratio p V / n T is very nearly the same for all of them at…

### Page 5

13 Matter: very simple

V

P1>P2

P2

O T

Charles' law

The pressure law: p / T = constant for constant n and V.

P

V1>V2

V2

O T

The pressure law

These laws can be combined into the general ideal gas law

pV =NkT where N is the number…

V

P1>P2

P2

O T

Charles' law

The pressure law: p / T = constant for constant n and V.

P

V1>V2

V2

O T

The pressure law

These laws can be combined into the general ideal gas law

pV =NkT where N is the number…

### Page 6

13 Matter: very simple

The kinetic theory gives, for the pressure p of volume V of an ideal gas:

pV = 1

3

Nm c 2 .

where:

N is the number of molecules

m is the mass of a molecule

c 2 is the mean of the squares of…

The kinetic theory gives, for the pressure p of volume V of an ideal gas:

pV = 1

3

Nm c 2 .

where:

N is the number of molecules

m is the mass of a molecule

c 2 is the mean of the squares of…

### Page 7

13 Matter: very simple

Conservation of energy

Imagine a closed boundary drawn around any set of objects, large or small. In a given time,

energy may enter across the boundary and energy may leave across the boundary. The

Principle of Conservation of Energy states that the change in energy within…

Conservation of energy

Imagine a closed boundary drawn around any set of objects, large or small. In a given time,

energy may enter across the boundary and energy may leave across the boundary. The

Principle of Conservation of Energy states that the change in energy within…

### Page 8

13 Matter: very simple

Root mean square speed

The speeds of molecules in a gas vary around an average value. The distribution of speeds of

molecules in nitrogen at 300 K is shown below.

mean speed

most probable root mean

speed square speed

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

speed…

Root mean square speed

The speeds of molecules in a gas vary around an average value. The distribution of speeds of

molecules in nitrogen at 300 K is shown below.

mean speed

most probable root mean

speed square speed

0.10

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

speed…

### Page 9

13 Matter: very simple

Summary Diagrams (OHTs)

Back to list of Contents

Boyle's law, density and number of molecules

Boyle's law and gas density

1 2 pressure p

4 3

volume V

mass m

density d

Boyle's law:

compress gas to half volume: half as much gas in half volume:…

Summary Diagrams (OHTs)

Back to list of Contents

Boyle's law, density and number of molecules

Boyle's law and gas density

1 2 pressure p

4 3

volume V

mass m

density d

Boyle's law:

compress gas to half volume: half as much gas in half volume:…

### Page 10

13 Matter: very simple

Boyle's law and number of molecules

Two ways to double gas

pressure

molecules in box:

pressure due to impacts

N molecules in volume V of molecules with walls

of box

squash the gas cram in more molecules

decrease V increase N

piston squashes up same molecules…

Boyle's law and number of molecules

Two ways to double gas

pressure

molecules in box:

pressure due to impacts

N molecules in volume V of molecules with walls

of box

squash the gas cram in more molecules

decrease V increase N

piston squashes up same molecules…

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