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Unit 5 ­Physics from
creation to collapse
Thermal energy

Investigate recognise and use the expression E=mc
Specific heat capacity is the quantity of energy needed to raise
the temperature of material, per kilogram per degree rise in
Specific heat capacity can be calculated using this equation
c =…

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In an ideal gas the internal energy is entirely the random kinetic
energy of its molecules
Ideal gas assumptions:
1. The intermolecular forces are negligible except in collision
2. That the collisions between molecules and with the wall are
3. Just before a collision molecules have kinetic energy the…

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< C 2 > is the mean squared and can calculated by squaring all the
speeds and divide by the number of speeds.
T is temperature measured in Kelvin
2 m < c2 > is the average Kinetic energy of a molecule
The average Kinetic energy of molecules is…

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Recall that the condition for simple harmonic motion is F = kx,
and hence identify situations in which simple harmonic motion
will occur

In oscillation the motion is repetitive about a fixed position with the
object at rest at either extremes and has maximum speed at
For an…

Page 5

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Plot a graph of F against X the graph should be a straight line and
the gradient will be the spring constant
Finding the spring constant using simple harmonic motion
Set up apparatus similar to that for the previous experiment.
This time measure the time taken for the masses to…

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Obtain a displacement ­ time graph for an oscillating object and
recognise that the gradient at a point gives the velocity at that

A card is attached to masses to give a good reflective surface.
Data logger set to record for 10 seconds at a sampling rate of

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At either extremes the Kinetic energy is 0 and G.P.E is max
ke = 21 1
mv2 theref ore ke = 2 m2A2

Distinguish between free, damped and forced oscillations
A free oscillation is one where there are no external forces
acting on the oscillating system apart from the force…

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The heavy dense bob is pulled back and released
This pendulum will oscillate at it natural frequency f o ,
determined by its length and given by the equation
T = 2 gl

All other light pendulums are coupled to this diver pendulum
by a string so they will experience…

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Latest technology is to coat turbine blades with ductile material. (A
material that can be plastically deformed without fracture) which
means that it can absorb a lot of energy.
If a ductile material feels vibrations it goes through hysteresis
loops each vibration.

Astrophysics and cosmology

Use the expression F =…

Page 10

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Recall similarities and differences between electric and
gravitational fields

Gravitational effects Electrostatic effects
Field strength
g=m E=Q

P.d. m Q

Energy conservation
1 1
2mv = mgh = QV
2 2

Force Laws F = Gmr12m2 F= r2

Radial Fields
Gm kQ
g= r2…


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