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Reasons why urban areas are in demand e.g. Manchester or London
Good healthcare facilities
Good educational facilities
Wide variety of shops
Entertainment: football stadium, cinema, museums
Jobs, particularly in the tertiary industry
Good public transport
Good transport links: airport, motorways, M6 in Manchester
Lots of good quality housing
Hotels and restaurants
Urbanisation (including push/pull factors) e.g. Kolkata, India
Population: 1950= 4.5m then more than tripled to 14.5m in 2010. Predicted to be 17.5m in 2015
Poverty: less than $85 per year More people to trade with
Lack of employment (mainly primary low paid) Employment opportunities: secondary, tertiary
and quaternary: tourism, restaurants etc.
Poor quality housing Better quality housing: bricks
Lack of sanitation= diseases like cholera/typhoid Local council provide services: street lights
Remote village can't trade no communication Transport links: public transport
Dry climate=crops can't grow, lack drinking water
Lack of services: < ½ are literate, few schools Services: schools and parks
Lack of electricity Better standard of life: electricity
Temporary housing, small, often illegal.
Diseases: typhoid/cholera, water contaminated by sewage. Tetanus from lack of
vaccinations. Densely populated, diseases spread quickly. Little sanitation.
Unreliable electricity, few have access, tap into national grid.
Waste not disposed (illegal housing) attracts rats = diseases.
Flooding: close to sea level, heavy rainfall, monsoons June September, houses = temporary
75% access to piped water. Slum: 35-40 families share one street tap.
1/3 have a toilet, poor sewerage systems, contaminates water.
Illegal jobs, informal sector.
Poor medical services, not enough schools
Pollution, slow rickshaws cause congestion, overcrowded public transport not big enough.
Sustainable cities in LEDCs e.g. Curitiba, Brazil
Population: 1940: 120,000 1965: 480,000 2010: 1.6million
Industrialisation = pollution, congestion, poor housing and nutrition, unemployment.
1989= first Brazilian city to recycle. Since then, 419,000 tonnes have been recycled.
2/3 of waste is recycled
This provides employment in the green sector.
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Sustainable cities in MEDCS e.g.…read more
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Pressures and Impacts on popular and growing living spaces
Demand for housing: need to build more houses
Loss of agricultural land: lower income for farmers
Pressure on services through higher demand: school, doctors
Traffic congestion: infrastructure can't cope
Commuting: air pollution
Second home: empty off peak
Change in house prices
Why are some living spaces unsustainable?
Consumption of large quantities of resources: energy, water, food, raw materials.…read more