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CHEMISTRY REVISION

BONDING

Ionic is the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. Metal + metal/non-metal.
Covalent is the attraction of two positive nuclei for a shared pair of electrons. Non-metal + non-metal.
Metallic is the attraction of two positive metal ions for a 'sea' of delocalised electrons.

Covalent bonds holding…

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Test for ammonia= damp red litmus paper turns blue/damp universal indicator paper turns purple

Cations flame tests= lithium-red, potassium-lilac, calcium-brick red, sulphur-yellow/orange

Cations precipitation with sodium hydroxide= copper (II)- blue, iron (II)- green, iron (III)- brown

Halide ions by precipitation with dilute nitric acid + silver nitrate= chlorine-white, bromine-cream, iodine-…

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