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Piaget's theory of cognitive
Kohlberg's theory of moral
understanding WHAT IS RIGHT?…read more

Slide 2

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Piaget's theory of cognitive
Developed by Jean Piaget,
1954…read more

Slide 3

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Piaget's mechanisms.
· Schema ­ Self constructed mental structures based around either
holding an object (behavioural) or classifying objects (cognitive).
· Assimilation ­ When an existing schema is used on a new object
and new information is incorporated into the schema.
· Accommodation ­ Where a child adapts an existing schema to
accommodate new information.
· Equilibration ­ When a child is aware of a lack of knowledge and
develops a new schema to fill the gap.…read more

Slide 4

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Stages in cognitive development
Stage one ­ Sensorimotor stage
· When children learn to co-ordinate what they see (sensory input) with what
they do (motor actions) through circular movements, where they repeat the
same actions over and over. They also lack in object permanence until
around the age of eight months ­ they believe that if they cannot see
something it does not exist.
· Nativists claim that children can develop object permanence much earlier
than eight months, as Piaget claimed. Bailargon and DeVos, 1991, showed
that children as young as three months displayed it.
They did the `Rolling Car test' where they put a carrot on a train, and ran it
through a tunnel with a window ­ when they made the carrot smaller so it
couldn't be seen, the children still looked for it.…read more

Slide 5

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Stages in cognitive developmen
Stage two ­ Pre-operational stage
· Children are egocentric at this stage ­ they lack empathy. They represent
their world in words, images and drawings. However they lack reversibility of
thought ­ they fail to understand that physical properties of an object
remain the same, even if the appearance changes. Piaget said this was due
to a child's reliance on perceptual rather than logic based reasoning ­ they
judge things based on what they see, not general rules.
· Piaget demonstrated this by using the three mountains test ­ he gave
children a set of images and asked them to choose which one from a doll
sitting on top of a mountains perspective. Most chose the picture that they
saw. However, Hughs, 1975 found that children understood better if the
situation was more realistic.…read more

Slide 6

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Stages in cognitive
Stage three ­ Concrete operational stage
· Children acquire basic logical reasoning, basic reversibility and become less
egocentric. They can now conserve, which means that they can now see
that the physical properties stay the same whilst the appearance changes.
· Piaget demonstrated conservation by showing children varying displays of
quantities ­ different sized beakers ­ and pouring liquid from one to
another, he then asked the children if the amount of liquid was the same.
Only around the age of seven were children able to see that the amount
stayed the same even if the appearance changed.…read more

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A very useful presentation, thank you Sophy.

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