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Kinetics
Factors increasing rate of reaction
- Increased concentration/ pressure: molecules are closer together so there are more collisions
- Increase SA of solids or immiscible liquids (dispersed through solution by shaking): increases SA in
contact with other reactant, so more collisions
- Temperature: more kinetic energy, so more molecules…

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Maxwell-boltzmann distribution




Reaction profiles




Higher temperature




Equilibrium
Some reversible reactions
- Hydration of CoCl2 or CuSO4
- Decomposition of ammonium chloride (forward
reaction occurs when heated, backwards when
cooled): NH4Cl(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g)
- 3Fe(s) + 4HO(g) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g) (when water is
used to sweep away hydrogen, forward reaction…

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