issues, debates and approaches to psychology

issues, debates and approaches you can add into your essays for ao2 and ao3 points

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  • Created on: 08-06-10 14:39
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Issues
Reliability
Validity
Gender bias
Cultural bias
Reductionism
Ecological validity
Ethics
Debates
Nature vs nurture
Freewill and determinism
Objective vs subjective
Internal vs external
Scientific vs non-scientific
Approaches
Social
Cognitive
Psychodynamic
Evolutionary
Behaviourist
Biological
Developmental
Individual differences
Issues
Reliability=consistency
Test-retest. Are you getting the same results? Don't want them to be a fluke
Validity=accuracy. Are you measuring what you set out to measure?
Gender-bias-when a study is conducted on one gender but the results should apply to both
(androcentric-men, endocentric- women)
Culture bias- when a study is conducted on one culture but results implied on others (ethnocentric)
Reductionism- too simplistic. Human behaviour is too complex so we need to use more than one
simple explanation
Ecological validity- if a study can be applied to a real life setting (mudane realism)
Ethics- moral guidelines set by the BPS in order to protect participants

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Debates
Nature vs nurture
This is the largest running debate in psychology as to what made us the person we are. Nature is the
idea that our traits and characteristics have been passed fown to us from our parents through our
genes. Nurture is the idea that we have learnt everything from the environment around us.
Freewill vs determinism
If we have freewill then we choose how we wnat to behave so we have personal responsibility for
everything we do.…read more

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This believes we are born a blank slate and all our behaviour has been learnt from the environment
around us: operant, classical and social learning theory.
Biological
Believes your biology determines your behaviour e.g. biochemistry, neuroanatomy (brain structure)
and genetics.
Developmental
This takes a life span approach and studies people from the day they were born to the day they die
and looks how they change and develop over time.
Individual differences
This believes everyone is unique and doesn't study people in groups.…read more

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