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Page 1

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Issues

Reliability
Validity
Gender bias
Cultural bias
Reductionism
Ecological validity
Ethics

Debates

Nature vs nurture
Freewill and determinism
Objective vs subjective
Internal vs external
Scientific vs non-scientific

Approaches

Social
Cognitive
Psychodynamic
Evolutionary
Behaviourist
Biological
Developmental
Individual differences

Issues

Reliability=consistency
Test-retest. Are you getting the same results? Don't want them to…

Page 2

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Debates

Nature vs nurture
This is the largest running debate in psychology as to what made us the person we are. Nature is the
idea that our traits and characteristics have been passed fown to us from our parents through our
genes. Nurture is the idea that we have learnt…

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This believes we are born a blank slate and all our behaviour has been learnt from the environment
around us: operant, classical and social learning theory.

Biological
Believes your biology determines your behaviour e.g. biochemistry, neuroanatomy (brain structure)
and genetics.

Developmental
This takes a life span approach and studies people…

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