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What is scientific knowledge based on?
1. Empirical Methods
· Testing to find out if something's true or not
· Information is gained through direct observation or experiment rather than by unfounded beliefs
· Scientific research aims to collect facts
2. Objectivity
· Researching and finding the truth rather than finding what you want to find
· Research shouldn't be affected by the researchers expectations
· The systematic collection of measurable data with carefully controlled conditions is at the heart of the scientific method
3. Replicability
· Easiest way to validate your results is to repeat the experiment
· If the outcome is the same it supports the truth of the results
· For this to happen, scientists need to record the procedures carefully so people can replicate the research
4. Theory Construction
· Making a theory is needed to make sense of the facts
· A theory is a collection of general principles that explain facts
· This can help us understand and predict the natural occurrences around us
5. Hypothesis Testing
· Theories are modified by testing hypotheses.
· This is how the validity of theory is tested.
· A good theory has hypotheses.
· If the scientist can't fin support for the theory then it needs to be modified…read more

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Induction STAR
Hypothesis wrong T
Make Observations
Produce a testable
Test it
Draw Conclusions
Hypothesis Right
Propose a theory…read more

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Deduction STAR
Make Observations
Produce a theory
Theory wrong
Produce a testable
Test it
Theory Right
Draw Conclusions…read more

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· Induction method : Create and test a hypothesis and then
propose a theory.
· Deduction method: Produce a theory and then a
hypothesis based on the theory.…read more

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Is Psychology A Science?
For Against
· Psychology is based on research · Psychology uses the tools of
i.e. empirical knowledge scientists but it can't isolate the
variables to the degree that a
· Some psychologists are that science can
human behaviour can be
measured just as objectively as
physical objects · In Psychology the object of study
(humans) reacts to the research
· Heisenberg (1927) ­ the which leads to bias
presence of an experimenter
changed the behaviour of what is
being observed even in physics. · Psychology is at best a
So if physics is a science, so is
Psychology. pseudoscience and this is
dangerous because Psychologists
can claim their discoveries as fact…read more


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