Individual Differences

Individual Differences table in relation to stress taking into account personality type, gender, ethnicity and hardiness

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Cleme Lewis
Individual differences and stress
Gender Culture Type A personality Hardy Personality
Men fight or flight Is the third kind of individual *Type As--competitive, Kobasa '79 argued people
Women tend or befriend difference modifying the ambitious, impatient, differ in hardiness (a
Males either overcome or flee a effect of stressors. restless and pressured. cluster of traits enabling
stressor while women affiliate It refers to morals, rules *Type Bs--lack these them to cope better:
socially with it.
and social practices of a characteristics and are Commitment they're
In most countries, women
live longer than men on
group of people the way more relaxed. more involved in what the
average because of gender they act. Other researchers (Morris et do & have direction in life.
differences in: These ways of life influence al., '81) added: They find meaning in their
Gender Differences in: the way people respond to *Type Cs--nice, industrious, work & personal
Physiological responses to stressors, experiencing conventional, sociable relationships.
stressors less stress due to healthier tend to be repressed & react Challenge--they view
Life style--there are social practices. to stress or threat with potentially stressful
different ways to handle
Some Cultural practices a sense of helplessness. situations as a challenge
stressful situations.
Behaviour, when in stressful
reduce stress and Increase Later research found a further or opportunity rather than
situations (e.g. seeking & Longevity. type: problem/threat.
obtaining social support). For example Black *Type Ds--distressed, Control--they have a
Hastrup et al. :oestrogen Americans have more pessimistic and anxious stronger sense of
helps women cope with essential hypertension than Competitive, aggressive, goal personal control.They fee
stress by protecting from white Americans due to directed, determined, always in they can influence events
atherosclerosis [largesized psychosocial factors or a hurry.
arteries linked with strokes
in their lives.
their personality. Type A personality have Kobasa found pps with
& heart disease]. On the
Says that black people are Higher levels of heart disease hardiness scores, who
other hand, male sex
hormones might be more likely to respond to (Rosenman & Friedman) exercised a lot, had least
atherogenic (causing the stressful situations with Linked to more aggressive illness.
disease). suppressed anger leading driving behaviour (Perry & Funk criticised Kobasa by
to heart problems and other Baldwin) saying `hardiness' is hard
health issues. to assess. Also, pps in he

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Cleme Lewis
Linked to faster heart rate research were mainly
when resting & when stressed white, middleclass males
(Lee et al. '07).…read more


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