IGCSE Solids, Liquids and Gases

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Solids, Liquids and Gases Summary
Density
Density () = mass (m) / volume (v)
Density is how much there is in a given volume.
Density is measured in kg/m3, although it is sometimes more convenient to measure
it in g/cm3, in which case, divide it by 1000 to get Kg.
For example, the density of water is 1g/cm3, this is the same as 0.001kg/cm3
For a regular solid
- Find the volume (volume = width x height x depth) in cm3
- Find the mass
- Divide the mass by the volume
For a liquid
- Find the mass (m) by weighing a dry cylinder (M1), and then with the liquid in it (M2)
and then find m = M2 M1
- Use the cylinder to find the volume it will be in cm3
- Divide the mass by the volume.
Pressure
Pressure (p) = Force (F) / Area (A)
Force is measured in Newtons (N) and Area is measure in Metres2 (m2))
Pressure is measured in either Pascals (Pa) or in Newtons per metre (N/m2).
Remember that 1 Pa = 1 N/m2
Solid objects exert downwards pressure upon
where they stand.
The smaller the surface area, the greater the
pressure.
In stationary liquids and gases, pressure at
any point acts in all directions and increases
with the depth of the gas or liquid (as it has the
mass of the liquid/gas on top of it, which
makes it heavier, and so a greater pressure).
A difference in pressure between two places in
a fluid will result in a flow of the fluid from the
place at higher pressure to the place of lower
pressure
Pressure and Depth
Pressure difference (p) = Height (m) x density (kg/m3) x Gravitational field strength* (N/Kg)
*On Earth, this is 10N/Kg
The States of Matter
Solid Liquid Gas
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Molecules in a solid are tightly packed and held in fixed positions by strong forces.
The molecules vibrate around their fixed positions. As the solid gets hotter, these
vibrations get bigger.
Molecules in a liquid are closely packed but do not have a regular structure. The
forces between the molecules are strong, but the molecules can move randomly. It is
a fluid.
Molecules in a gas are widely spread and in a continuous state of random motion.…read more

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