# IGCSE Solids, Liquids and Gases

- Created by: Annie Hart
- Created on: 12-04-13 10:43

First 345 words of the document:

Solids, Liquids and Gases Summary

Density

Density () = mass (m) / volume (v)

Density is how much there is in a given volume.

Density is measured in kg/m3, although it is sometimes more convenient to measure

it in g/cm3, in which case, divide it by 1000 to get Kg.

For example, the density of water is 1g/cm3, this is the same as 0.001kg/cm3

For a regular solid

- Find the volume (volume = width x height x depth) in cm3

- Find the mass

- Divide the mass by the volume

For a liquid

- Find the mass (m) by weighing a dry cylinder (M1), and then with the liquid in it (M2)

and then find m = M2 M1

- Use the cylinder to find the volume it will be in cm3

- Divide the mass by the volume.

Pressure

Pressure (p) = Force (F) / Area (A)

Force is measured in Newtons (N) and Area is measure in Metres2 (m2))

Pressure is measured in either Pascals (Pa) or in Newtons per metre (N/m2).

Remember that 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

Solid objects exert downwards pressure upon

where they stand.

The smaller the surface area, the greater the

pressure.

In stationary liquids and gases, pressure at

any point acts in all directions and increases

with the depth of the gas or liquid (as it has the

mass of the liquid/gas on top of it, which

makes it heavier, and so a greater pressure).

A difference in pressure between two places in

a fluid will result in a flow of the fluid from the

place at higher pressure to the place of lower

pressure

Pressure and Depth

Pressure difference (p) = Height (m) x density (kg/m3) x Gravitational field strength* (N/Kg)

*On Earth, this is 10N/Kg

The States of Matter

Solid Liquid Gas

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