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The Hydrosphere Keywords
Evaporation the change of water from liquid to gas as hydrogen bonds are broken.
Hydrogen bond the weak electrostatic bond formed between water molecules, which
gives water a high boiling point.
Anomalous expansion usual expansion, usually applied to water which expands as it is
cooled below 4°C.
Residence time the average length of time that a molecule remains in a reservoir.
Aquifer an underground rock structure from which water is abstracted.
Reservoir the general name given for storage location for any material, e.g. nitrogen,
crude oil, water, iron etc. The term is also used for the stored water retained by a dam.
Transfer rate the volume of material moved from one reservoir to another.
Groundwater the water found in the pre spaces and fissures in rocks.
Transpiration the process by which plants lose water vapour, mainly from the stomata of
their leaves. It is unavoidable as the moist stomata must be open to allow exchange of
gases such as carbon dioxide. It also helps to cool plants and in the upward transport of
Precipitation condensation of atmospheric vapour that reaches the Earth's surface in any
liquid or solid form.
Throughflow - the sideways movement of water in the ground.
Interception precipitation that does not reach the ground because it lands on vegetation.
Infiltration the process by which surface water enters the ground between the particles
of soil or rock.
Percolation the movement of water between the particles of soil or rock.
Groundwater flow the movement of water through the pore spaces and fissures in
River channel discharge the volume of water flowing past a particular point on a river
and is a product of cross sectional area and mean water velocity.
Abstraction the removal of water from the location where it was found.
Irrigation - artificial watering of plants, especially crops.
Potable water that is suitable for drinking.
TSS the total amount of organic and inorganic material suspended in a volume of water.
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Pathogen an organism that causes disease.
Coliform count a measure of the sewage pollution based in the presence of the faecal
Anaerobic a process or organism that does not require oxygen.
Topography the 3D shape of the landscape.
Porosity a measure of the percentage of the volume of a rock that is space.
Permeability a measure of the rate at which a fluid, such as water, can flow through rock.…read more