First 623 words of the document:
Sexual Selection Parental Investment
Process within natural selection where any characteristics/behaviours Trivers- "any investment by the parent in an in
are selected to increase chance of reproductive success. offspring that increases the chance of offsprin
Due to differences in parental investment, there are gender differences
survival at the cost of parent's ability to invest
in reproductive behaviour such as gender specific mating strategies and offspring." Includes provision of resources- foo
preferences and so different characteristics have been selected. Female far greater-fewer gametes, men have
As females have large, few, limited eggs-careful to ensure reproduction Main sex difference- men can opt out. Female
is successful. Invest more time into offspring to can afford to be more discriminate in mate choice so males compete
choosy. Lead to Intersexual selection- preferences for males. Female
preference determines area for which males compete. Prefer men Maternal investment more both pre-natal and
displaying genetic fitness-strength-triangular back, broad shoulders post-natal. More time and effort-carry as foet
reflects strength. High status and resources important. Less likely months-after then rely on breast milk-utter de
short-term mating strategies wasteful of resources. Long-term mating on mother.
strategies-choose right mate to ensure reproductive success.
Parental investment less. Large effort in court
Wayneforth-prefer masculine features-square jaw line, thin lips.
Partridge- investigated intersexual selection. Female fruit flies, one mating-little effort in parenting-cuckoldry.
group had partner selected random, other freel breed- own choice.
Offspring measured- high competitive ability in offspring from own
Sexual infidelity big problem in both sexes. In
choice-intersexual selection increased reproductive success. to wasting resources on child that is not his-de
reproductive success. Females-direction of res
Males-numerous, unlimited sperm-mate and little reproductive cost. away from female and offspring. Sexual jealou
Cannot be sure of paternity-maximise reproductive success-impregnate evolved to deter sexual infidelity.
as many women as possible. Leads to intrasexual selection-compete
for access to female, winner mates. Men evolved greater desire for sex Buss-men found more distressed when imag
and desire sex sooner than females. Short-term mating strategy-males sexual infidelity, females more when emotion
lower standards and after sex their attraction decreases-evolutionary infidelity.
adaptation so don't spend too long with one woman. In long-term
mating strategies- males do not give resources freely. Preferences for Harris-men more aroused by thought of any
females displaying fertility, such as hour glass figure and wide imagery, regardless context-cause results.
child-bearing hips-youth, beauty.
Cunnigham-Baby face, small nose, big eyes Extra-martial affairs results of maternal
Singh-0.7 waist-hip ratio investment-marry partner good resources, loo
another displaying good genes. Baker-survey-
Buss cross-cultural, surveys- females prefer qualities in males that
suggest status and resources-ambition. Males-attractiveness and youth. product of extra-marital affair
Good cross cultural-suggests due to genes, not socialisation.
Method-social desirability- told us preferences-not reali-life choices.
Socially sensitive, social desirability
Male preferences for youth explained by social power-easier to
Anderton-willingness of men to pay for child
Kenrick-teenage males prefer up to 5 years older education of measure PI- willing to pay for ow
didn't discriminate again children of partners
Dunbar+Wayneforth-lonely hearts columns. 42% men sought previous r'ships-paternal uncertainty not issue
youth-24% women. 44% men attractive, 22% women
Clark and Hatfield-75% men agreed sex when approached by Reductionist-parental behaviour due to man
stranger-0% females. personal factors-personality of father, r'ship w
sample bias. Ethical-guilt/shame deception
Reductionist-not jusy product of evolutionary past-cultural, religion, Besky-childhood experiences-divorce correla
gender role socialisation degree of paternal investment
Infertile people still marry- no reproductive success
Deterministc-no free will/choice