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Tubah Ihsan

Our body needs to maintain homeostasis in order to stay alive. Homeostasis is maintenance of a
constant internal environment in an organism. It ensures that the cells of the body are in such
environment that they can functional normally regardless of external changes.

Homeostasis is important for…

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Tubah Ihsan

working altogether. Therefore in order for organisms to survive they have to regulate their
temperature. This process is called thermoregulation.

Animals can control their body temperature by controlling heat gain and heat loss. Methods of
gaining heat include:

Production of heat ­ by metabolism of food during respiration…

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Tubah Ihsan

Conserving and gaining heat in cold environment
Mammals and birds living in a cold environment have evolved genetic adaptations in order to survive.
One of the most important adaptations is to have a body with small surface area to volume ratio.
Heat is produced within the volume and…

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Tubah Ihsan

Lowering of body hair ­ the hair erector muscle in the skin relax, causing the hair to flatten
against the body. This reduced the thickness of the insulating layer and therefore allows
more heat to be lost to the environment when the internal temp is higher than the…


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