History revision - AQA B

notes on paris peace conference, league of nations, steps to WW2 and the cold war

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  • Created on: 11-06-12 18:35
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The Treaty of Versailles
Paris Peace Conference (5 treaties)
18 January 1919
Treaty of Versailles signed on 22 June 1919
Became effective on 20 January 1920
Who came? USA, France, Great Britain, Italy (Vittorio Orlando)
Aims
George CLEMENCEAU ­ PM of France
(seen France invaded twice)
AIMS ­ cripple Germany
Revenge
Punish
Make Germany pay for damage caused
Weaken Germany to gain security for France through disarmament
Woodrow WILSON ­ President of America
AIMS ­ strengthen democracy in defeated nations
Make world safe
End war by fair peace
Disarmament
League of Nations
Self determination (right of nations to rule themselves)
14 points published on 8 Jan 1918
David Lloyd GEORGE ­ PM of Britain
(peacemaker) but British public said ­ `squeezed until the pips squeak!'
AIMS ­ develop GB
Make Germany pay
Justice NOT revenge
Peace but not too harsh ­ halfway point
Expand British empire
Maintain control of seas
Increase trade (with Germany)
Prevent Germany becoming a Communist
Terms

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Terms of the Treaty announced on 7 May 1919
German outrage `pain anger'
They felt it was unfair
It was a 'Diktat' ­ an IMPOSED settlement
Not allowed to take part in the talks ­ they had just been told to sign.…read more

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League of Nations
Self determination for the people of Eastern Europe
Disappointment:
Some of his 14 points did not get into the Treaty
The SENATE (US Parliament) refused to join the League
Clemenceau got:
Reparations
Tiny German army
Demilitarized zone in the Rhineland
Got German colonies
Disappointment:
Wanted Treaty to be harsher
Wanted Germany to split up into smaller countries
Lloyd George got:
Some German colonies (expand British empire)
Small German navy (maintain control of sea)
Disappointment:
Treaty too harsh
Cause another war
Other Treaties…read more

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Army limited to 30 000
Pay reparation but BANKRUPT so nothing was paid
Treaty of Trianon ­ Hungary 1920
Lost land to Romania + Yugoslavia
Pay reparations but nothing was paid
Army limited to 35 000
Treaty of Neuilly ­ Bulgaria 1919
Lost land to Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia
Army limited to 20 000
Pay reparation - £100 million
Treaty of Sevres ­ Turkey 1920
Lost land to Greece
Lost empire to Britain and France
Army limited to 50 000
BUT (revolution so new government announced…read more

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Opportunities Threats
Czechs/Slovaks run own government Germany want land back
Economically + politically strong Border Germany
Poland
Strength Weakness
Acts like barrier to communism No natural borders
Access to sea Divides Germany from East Prussia
Language barrier
Opportunities Threats
Safe government Vulnerable to attacks
Dissatisfied minorities
Austria
Strength Weakness
Smaller nation Limited army ­ 30 000 men
New government Bankrupt
Lost a lot of land to Czechs
Opportunities Threats
Start as new less militaristic nation Vulnerable to attack
Forbidden to unite with Germany
The League…read more

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Main strength of League - set up by the Treaty of Versailles and agreed by everybody at
the conference
42 countries joined League at the start
In 1930s about 60 countries were members, made League seem strong
Membership - WEAKNESS
Britain & France (1919-1945) - main members, most powerful, any actions had to be
agreed by them but they didn't always agree
France worried about Germany
Britain wanted to improve their trade/empire
Britain didn't want to act as the policeman of the world so
refused…read more

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It was a muddle
The different parts of the League were supposed to act together; but in a crisis, no-one
could agree
Conference of
ASSEMBLY
COUNCIL
Ambassadors
The League's main meeting, held Met 45 times a year and in crises to
Informal meetings of the more
once a year. solve international disputes.
important countries.
All League nations could attend. 5 permanent members
Not part of the League, but
Decisions only by unanimous vote. (Br, Fr, It, Jap & Ger after 1926).
often made decisions.…read more

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Permanent members can VETO decisions and misuse their power
Everyone had to agree with all the decisions before they were made so it is fair
Assembly only met once a year which is not enough and there were problems if members
didn't agree. Also permanent members would often ignore temporary members.…read more

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Drugs ­ League closed down 4 big Swiss drug selling Companies
Silesia (1921) ­ League held a plebiscite and suggested a separation
Stopped a war between Germany and Poland
Aaland Island (1921) - decided between Sweden and Finland over the Aaland Islands
Its investigation showed islands belonged to Finland
Took 400,000 Prisoners of War home
League's Failures 1920s
Corfu, 1923 - Italian general murdered in Greece
Italy occupied Corfu
Greece appealed to League
League ordered Mussolini to leave ­ Conference of Ambassadors overruled
League, forced…read more

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Later 1932
Japanese aeroplanes + gunships bombed Shangai
Civilian government told army to withdraw but army ignored
Army clearly in control of Japanese foreign policy instead of government
Mar 1932
China appealed to league
Japan claimed they were not invading as an aggressor
(Self defence to maintain peace as China was in state of anarchy)
League set up Lytton Commission to look at evidence
Sep 1932
Reported Japan had acted unlawfully, had to return Manchuria to Chinese
Feb 1933
Instead of withdrawing, Japan said they…read more

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