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Page 1

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The Treaty of Versailles
Paris Peace Conference (5 treaties)

18 January 1919
Treaty of Versailles signed on 22 June 1919
Became effective on 20 January 1920

Who came? USA, France, Great Britain, Italy (Vittorio Orlando)

Aims

George CLEMENCEAU ­ PM of France
(seen France invaded twice)

AIMS ­ cripple Germany…

Page 2

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Terms of the Treaty announced on 7 May 1919

German outrage `pain anger'
They felt it was unfair
It was a 'Diktat' ­ an IMPOSED settlement
Not allowed to take part in the talks ­ they had just been told to sign.

WAR GUILT

Had to accept the blame for…

Page 3

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League of Nations
Self determination for the people of Eastern Europe

Disappointment:

Some of his 14 points did not get into the Treaty
The SENATE (US Parliament) refused to join the League

Clemenceau got:

Reparations
Tiny German army
Demilitarized zone in the Rhineland
Got German colonies

Disappointment:

Wanted Treaty to…

Page 4

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Army limited to 30 000
Pay reparation but BANKRUPT so nothing was paid

Treaty of Trianon ­ Hungary 1920

Lost land to Romania + Yugoslavia
Pay reparations but nothing was paid
Army limited to 35 000

Treaty of Neuilly ­ Bulgaria 1919

Lost land to Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia
Army limited…

Page 5

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Opportunities Threats
Czechs/Slovaks run own government Germany want land back
Economically + politically strong Border Germany

Poland

Strength Weakness
Acts like barrier to communism No natural borders
Access to sea Divides Germany from East Prussia
Language barrier

Opportunities Threats
Safe government Vulnerable to attacks
Dissatisfied minorities

Austria

Strength Weakness
Smaller…

Page 6

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encourage countries to co operate especially in trade
stop wars + make the world a better place
improve people's lives + jobs around the world
encourage disarmament
discourage aggression
the compulsory registration of all treaties to avoid further secret alliances

Main strength of League - set up by the Treaty…

Page 7

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It was a muddle
The different parts of the League were supposed to act together; but in a crisis, no-one
could agree


Conference of
ASSEMBLY
COUNCIL
Ambassadors
The League's main meeting, held Met 45 times a year and in crises to
Informal meetings of the more
once a year. solve…

Page 8

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Permanent members can VETO decisions and misuse their power

Everyone had to agree with all the decisions before they were made so it is fair
Assembly only met once a year which is not enough and there were problems if members
didn't agree. Also permanent members would often ignore temporary…

Page 9

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Drugs ­ League closed down 4 big Swiss drug selling Companies

Silesia (1921) ­ League held a plebiscite and suggested a separation
Stopped a war between Germany and Poland

Aaland Island (1921) - decided between Sweden and Finland over the Aaland Islands
Its investigation showed islands belonged to Finland

Took…

Page 10

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Later 1932
Japanese aeroplanes + gunships bombed Shangai
Civilian government told army to withdraw but army ignored
Army clearly in control of Japanese foreign policy instead of government

Mar 1932
China appealed to league
Japan claimed they were not invading as an aggressor
(Self defence to maintain peace as China…

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