Henry VII

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Warbeck's conspiracy
A week later, Earl of Warwick found guilty of treason and executed.
Although Warwick was not dangerous himself, others plotted around him making him a threat.
Pressure from Spain also would have encouraged Henry to do this- Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to
make sure their daughter had a secure inheritance.
The Warbeck conspiracy was carefully planned by foreign supporters and was not, though it seemed
it, a spontaneous result of public opinion at the time.
It is unlikely that any of these important foreign supporters actually believed in the conspiracy, but
just wanted to dislodge the King of England (Margaret of Burgundy and James IV of Scotland.)
Further Yorkist threats 1499-1506
After Warwick, the next claimant was Edmund De La Pole- brother of Lincoln.
Suffolk suffered underlying tension with the King because Henry did not allow him to be a Duke like
his father.
July 1499, Suffolk took flight to Calais. Henry feared a foreign-backed invasion by this claimant. Henry
persuaded him to return, and remained friends until 1501.
In 1501, Suffolk fled to the court of Maximillian (HRE). All old Yorkist supporters once again gathered
in Flanders.
In 1500s, Henry's third son Edmund died in April 1502; eldest son died this year as well- ONLY MALE
HEIR Henry who was thought of as weak; and wife died in 1503.
Henry now acted more ruthlessly than ever before- indicated his insecurity.
Suffolk's relations who remained in England were imprisoned and Parliament met in 1504 with 51
men. Many of the men connected to Suffolk were attained- largest number of men punished by
Parliament at any one point in his reign.
Sir James Tyrell was one of the most important victims- also admitted to killing the Princes before his
execution- stopped any further pretenders.
Henry's luck changed in 1506- storm caused Philip of Burgundy and his wife to take shelter in
Weymoth- forced them to surrender Suffolk whom he had taken from Maximillian. Suffolk was
promised to be spared. Henry kept this promise- remained in the tower until Henry VIII execute him
in 1513.
Suffolk's brother Richard De La Pole remained at large in Europe trying to muster support for his
claim to the throne- however, few yorkists remained and Henry seemed a fair King.
Richard was killed in the Battle of Pabia in 1525 but was never proved a serious threat to Henry.
Henry could not have felt secure on his throne until the last claimant (Richard) was dead.

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It was not until 1506 that the persistent Yorkist claimants were, for the most part, eliminated.
Taming the Nobility and Befriending the Church
Henry's reign marks the end of the independent feudal nobility and the beginning of the service
Henry deliberately kept the number of nobles small by limiting the number of titles he either
bestowed or created to heal the nobility IN CONTRAST to Edward IV who made more nobles.
Henry VII refrained from creating new nobles for these reasons:
1.…read more

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Henry faced a dilemma because he could not allow retaining to continue because it might threaten his
To ignore it would make him look weak and indecisive, but he dare not enforce retaining because it
might result in force and opposition. To ban it would be counterproductive because the King needed
retainers for his own supporters to maintain law and order and form the core of the royal army.…read more

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Henry's foreign policy
Political aims:
1. Maintain power.
2. Avoid war.
3. Gain allies.
Henry could not go to war because England was too politically and financially unstable. Gaining allies
would gain stability.
Henry's primary aim was to secure his dynasty. Dynastically, diplomatically and financially Henry was
vulnerable- as a usurper, most of Europe's rulers did not expect him to last long.…read more

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England and Burgundy were commercial partners, with Burgundy being the main outlet of the sale of
English cloth (biggest export.)
Henry was a usurper of Margaret's families crown and so she made it her aim to destroy him. The
Burgundy core became a magnet for Yorkists trying to reclaim the throne and pretenders for the
English throne (Simnal and Warbeck.)
Henry had no chance of sealing a deal with Burgundy as long as Margaret had influence.…read more

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France and the Treaty of Etaples.
In retaliation to Henry's intervention with Brittany, the French supported the pretender Warbeck. As
a result, Henry went to war with France. He announced his intention to assert his claim to the French
Henry then increased the taxes to finance his French invasion. This led to the Cornish rebellion.
October 1492, a large equipped army 26,000 men landed in Calais, where they moved to Boulogne.…read more

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Scotland and the agreement of Ayton 1497 and 1502
Relations between England Scotland were always tense. England claimed over lord ship of Scotland,
so Scotland established an alliance with France ­ called the auld alliance. Which constantly worried
English kings. Henry was wary of this alliance, so he worked hard to find truces with both nations.
Perkin Warbeck sort aid from the scots and the Scottish king James IV took the opportunity to
support the pretender.…read more

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Governance of England
Unlike former kings, like Edward VI, Henry liked paperwork and took the opportunity to stamp his
own authority on the governing of England. Unlike former kings he also had less nobility with only a
select few trusted advisors. All this gave the appearance of being new and different to the monarchs
Central Government
Henry inherited an improved system from the Yorkists, so he did not change it during his reign.…read more

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Empson's promotion to president of this council signified the increasing ruthlessness in which bonds
and recognisances were misused to threaten the nobility- 1504.
The lead councillors were toppled after Henry's death because of their hated status. Ironically the
Council Learned had become, by 1509, the most important and efficient of Henry's institutes of
Personnel of the government
Unlike former kings, Henry had some of the middle-class gentry in his government.…read more

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On his death in 1489, Henry ignored the claims for his title and instead instated
Earl of Surrey as his successor. As a southern landowner, Surrey was not influenced by the
North and was based purely on his ability and not his lineage.
This pattern was repeated after Jasper Tudor died in 1495. He was replaced with a Council
under the presidency of William Smyth rather than a relative.…read more


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