Haloalkanes

AQA- Haloalkanes. Hope this helps :) 

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Chemistry In Action
14.1- Haloalkanes
These compounds do not really occur naturally, but form the basis of many
synthetic compounds we use in everyday life.
They have an alkane skeleton with one or more halogen in place of hydrogen
atoms.
Naming:
Prefixes fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, or iodo- tell us w
hich halogen is
present.
Numbers are used to indicate w hich carbon atom the halogen is
attached to.
Prefixes of di, tri, tetra... are used to show h
ow many atoms of each
halogen are present.
When a compound contains different halogens they are listed in
alphabetical order.
Bond Polarity
Explain why the C-X
bond is polar.
-Xd-
Cd+
The halogen (X) is more electronegative than the carbon, meaning that it pulls
electrons towards itself within a covalent bond.
pen to the trend in polarity as we go down the group?
Decrease- electronegativity decreases.
C-X bond
In a haloalkane molecule it is almost always the C-X bond that will break.
Matthew Thomas
The Maelor School

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Chemistry In Action
Explain the two factors that will effect how easily this breaks:
Bond polarity: The more polar the bond the easier it breaks. The
electron deficient carbon means that the electron rich reagents can
attack and break the bond.
So we can expect the reactivity trend to d ecrease down the group.
BE
Bond (kJmol1)
CF 467
CH 413
CCl 346
CBr 290
CI 228
Bond enthalpy: The amount of energy needed to break a bond.…read more

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Chemistry In Action
In a primary haloalkane the halogen is attached to a carbon that is
bonded to one other carbon.
In a secondary haloalkane the halogen is
attached to a carbon that is bonded to
two other carbons.
In a tertiary haloalkane the halogen is attached to a carbon that is
bonded to three other carbons.…read more

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