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Name of study: The Role of Cognitive Bias and Skill in Fruit Machine Gambling

Author(s): Griffiths

Approach: Individual Differences

Background information (what theories/issues of previous research is the study based on?)
According to Griffiths someone who is addicted will display 6 characteristics or symptoms:
Characteristic/Symptom Description
Salience Addictive behaviour becomes…

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1. There would be no differences between RGs and NRGs on objective measures of skill.
2. RGs would produce more irrational verbalisation than NRGs when thinking aloud, e.g. Personification.
3. RGs would be more focused on the subjective skill of playing fruit machines than NRGs.

What were the IV+DV…

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Mean age 23.4 years

Poster gathered the NRGs through Volunteer sampling
Griffiths recruited some via a gambler known to him - opportunity sampling

Opportunity Sampling Volunteer Sampling
Advantage Disadvantage Advantage Disadvantage
Easy method to collect the A biased method because Access to a variety of Sample is biased because

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List the findings:

Two main differences on objective skill level:
1. RGs significantly higher play rate than NRGs.
2. RGs who thought aloud had a significantly lower win rate in the number of gambles.

Three suggestions in irrational verbalisation between RGs and NRGs
Mean % total Mean % total

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RGs more focused on subjective skill of playing fruit In interviews the RGs all talked about skill in all three of
machines than NRGs. the main questions asked. Hypothesis three accepted.

What have the findings of this study told us about human behaviour? (I.e. nature vs. nurture, is it useful?)…

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Type of data

Qualitative Quantitative
Irrational verbalisations such % of irrational
as "the machine likes me" verbalisations made by both
or "this fruity machine is groups and data based on
not in a good mood" behaviour observations.
Strength Weakness Strength Weakness
Gives us deep insight into It can be difficult…

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don't get a true accept from time to time Opportunity Encouraging
representation of they will have losses. This to average daily
participants' behaviour. could be done over a 1 out their gambling
month period, during which successes argued to
time the RGs and NRGs over a long be unethical.


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