Glacial and Fluvioglacial Landforms

An organised table with the stated landforms, a description and its process of formation.

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  • Created on: 22-04-16 16:38
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Glacial and fluvioglacial deposition landforms:
Glacial deposition landform Description Process
Erratics A large block of rock that has been moved from Boulders are picked up by the glacier and carried
one area and deposited in another different area. for many kilometres, to be deposited in areas of
completely different lithology/geology.
Moraine Moraines are lines, or a series of mounds of They are a type of landform that develop when
material mainly running across glacial valleys. the debris carried by a glacier is deposited, so it is
not the actual material that is being transported
There are five types of moraine: (with the exception of medial moraine).
Lateral moraine An embankment of unsorted material along the Formed from debris derived from the frost
valley side shattering of valley sides and carried along the
edges of the glacier. When the glacier melts, it
leaves an embankment of material along the
valley side.
Medial moraine Unsorted material found running down the It results from the merging of two lateral
centre of a valley moraines where two glaciers joined
Terminal/end moraine They are formed from unsorted ablation They are formed when the ice melts during a
material, often a high mound or series of period of glacier snout standstill and the material
mounds. They extend across a valley, or lowland it has been carrying is deposited. This is why they
area, at right angles to the direction of ice. They contain a range of unsorted material, from clay
mark the maximum advance of the glacier or ice to boulders.
Recessional moraine They mark interruptions in the retreat of the ice They form when the glacier or ice sheet
and are usually parallel to the terminal moraine. remained stationary long enough for a mound of
material to build up.

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Push moraines It can be recognised by the orientation of If the climate cools for some time leading to a
individual stones that have been pushed upwards glacial advance, a previously deposited moraine
from their original horizontal positions. may be shunted up into a mound.
Drumlins Smooth, elongated mounds of unsorted till with There is some controversy over the origin of
their long axis parallel to the direction of ice drumlins which are formed underneath the ice.
movement.…read more

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Outwash plains (sandur) Outwash plains are found in front of the glacier's They are deposited by meltwater streams
snout. They consist of material that was brought issuing from the ice either during summer or
down by the glacier and then picked up, sorted when the glacier melts. The material may have
and dropped by running water.…read more

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Kames and kame terraces Mounds of fluvioglacial material (sorted and They are deltaic deposits left when meltwater
often stratified ­ found in layers, such as coarse flows into a lack dammed up in front of the
sands and gravel). glacial snout by recessional moraine deposits. As
the ice retreats, the unsupported kame often
Kame terraces, also of sand and gravel, are flat
areas found along the sides of the valley.…read more

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Kettles Detached blocks of ice which form depressions These form from detached blocks of ice, left by
and fill with water when the ice melts, forming the glacier as it retreats, and then partially
small lakes. buried by the fluvioglacial deposits left by
meltwater streams. When the ice block melts,
they leave enclosed depressions which often fill
with water to form kettlehole lakes.
Aquatic plants become established in the lakes
and this lads overtime to the development of a
marshy area and then peat.…read more


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