What processes operate within glacier systems?

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What are inputs to a glacier?
Precipitation (snow, sleet, hail), solar energy, kinetic energy, meltwater, moraine and debris.
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What are the outputs of a glacier?
Meltwater, sediment, sublimation (evaporation), calving, avalanches
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What is the equilibrium point of a glacier?
The place or point along a glacier's course where the gains and losses of store ice balance each other.
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Explain the significance of a glacier's energy budget in the long term.
If it is fairly consistent over long periods, then this will determine the general behaviour of the glacier, whether it is retreating or advancing.
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Why do polar and temperate glaciers move at different rates?
Because polar glaciers are cold-based and the temperate ones are warm-based. The meltwater in warm-based glaciers act as a lubricant between glacier ice and the rocky floor.
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What are the three processes that are important to glacier movement?
Basal sliding or slipping, internal deformation, regelation creep.
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Outline the factors affecting the rate of glacier movement.
Warm or cold-based glaciers, gradient between zones of accumulation and ablation, amount of deformable subglacial sediment, altitude, size and mass balance.
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What is meant by a glacial surge?
A sudden increase in glacial velocity, usually caused by a glacier collapsing when the mass and slope angle of the ice builds up to a critical level.
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What are the FOUR main glacial processes of the glacier system.
Erosion, entrainment, transport, deposition.
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Give examples of glacial landforms at a macro scale.
Cirques, pyramidal peaks, glacial troughs, terminal moraines
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Give examples of glacial landforms at a meso scale.
Crag and tail, roche moutonnees, drumlins, eskers, kames.
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Give examples of glacial landforms at a micro scale.
Striations, shattermarks, glacial troughs.
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Give the location of 'subglacial' glacier processes.
Beneath the glacier.
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Give the location of 'englacial' glacier processes.
Within the glacier.
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Give the location of 'marginal' glacier processes.
Along the glacier sides.
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Give the location of 'proglacial' glacier processes.
Closely adjacent to the glacier snout.
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Give the location of 'periglacial' glacier processes.
Beyond the glacier snout.
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Explain the general difference between upland and lowland glaciated landscapes.
The most obvious landforms in upland areas are those resulting from glacial erosion, while those of lowland areas are largely the product of deposition (glacial and fluvioglacial).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the outputs of a glacier?

Back

Meltwater, sediment, sublimation (evaporation), calving, avalanches

Card 3

Front

What is the equilibrium point of a glacier?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain the significance of a glacier's energy budget in the long term.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do polar and temperate glaciers move at different rates?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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