Germany pre-WW2 notes

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  • Created on: 15-05-14 18:42
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- DNVP (German National People's Party- far right wing)
- KPD (German Communist Party)
- SPD (German Socialist Party)
- DAP (German Workers' Party) NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party- far
right wing) = becomes Nazi party
- SS = Schutzstaffel (led by Heinrich Himmler) = the Blackshirts = started off small as
Hitler's bodyguard
- SA = Sturmabteilung (led by Röhm) = the Brownshirts = NSDAP paramilitary organisation
(role: protect Nazi meetings, disrupt opponent meetings [so speeches less organised
and less convincing], watch voters with guns [no longer secret ballot], ensure
addresses given to intimidate people into voting for Nazis)
- Gestapo = secret police (led by Göring)
- SD = intelligence service (led by Heinrich Himmler) for party + country security
- Nazi Labour Front = organisation to replace threatening trade unions
Treaty of Versailles
Signed in Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles because traditional place of French power
and was where Prussians announced formation of German Empire after defeating
French in Franco-Prussian war.
Key terms
- Alsace & Lorraine returned to France
- Eupen & Melmedy Belgium
- Posen, Upper Silesia & West Prussia Poland ( `Polish corridor')
- Austria forbidden to unite with Germany
- Germany lost 13% of its European territory
- Army reduced to 100,000 troops, conscription banned
- Tanks, submarines and military aircrafts banned
- Rhineland demilitarised and run by Allies for 15 years
- Clause 312: War guilt clause
- League of Nations formed but Germany not allowed to join
- £6,600 million of reparations at £1 million per year
Was It fair?
Yes No
Germany separated from `Diktat' (dictated) signed by back-stabbing
powerful Russia by Polish corridor `November Criminals' (=Dolchstoss [stab-in-the-
back theory])
Germany not occupied Clause 312 invalid as it takes two to start a war

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Weimar Republic
- Berlin too dangerous, so meetings in Weimar (hence name)
- No single party had majority after Constituent Assembly of January 1919 elections-
coalitions key feature of Weimar Republic as elections by proportional representation
- Assembly chose Ebert as president
Democratic Undemocratic
Bicameral legislature (approval of both elected Article 48 - President given all power
chambers needed for law to be passed). if public safety compromised
Reichstag made laws/controlled gov.…read more

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T he Nazis
- Nazi propaganda chief = Gregor Strasser
- Themes of work and bread, Hitler as last hope, Communism linked to Judaism (because
Trotsky = Jewish)
- Poster with "List 9 National Socialist German Workers' Party" (their ballot number) and
snake with star of David on head and words such as "Bolshevism, Versailles,
unemployment" being stabbed in the head
Why Hitler rose to power
- Hitler was a great speaker, with the power to make people support him.…read more

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Event that helped
Hitler gain power
Political parties Banning political parties made Germany a one-party state and destroyed
democracy in the country. After this action, Germans could no longer get rid
of Hitler in an election.
People's Courts These were set up to give Hitler greater control over the judgements made in
courts. Hitler was furious because the courts did not sentence the
communists to death for starting the Reichstag fire.
Night of the Long This destroyed all opposition within the Nazi Party.…read more

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Josef Goebbels in charge of Ministry of Public Propaganda and Enlightenment
- Non-Nazi newspapers banned, editors told what allowed to print (e.g. Not allowed to
print photo of Reich government members drinking as gave impression that they were
`living it up')
- Cheap radios installed in cafés + factories to play Nazi-controlled radio stations only
- All films had Nazi slants (e.g.…read more

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Impact on Christian groups
- Nazism clashed with Christianity (taught violence not love, hated weak didn't help them,
Hitler god-like)
- of population = Catholic, = Protestants. Catholics threat as loyalty divided
between Pope and Hitler, supported Centre party and religion school messages clashed
with Nazi ones
Persecution of minorities
- Hitler's race theory: Ubermenschen destined to rule, non-Aryans = 2nd class citizens,
Herrenvolk (master race contaminated by `sub-humans'), Untermenschen (`sub-humans,'
e.g.…read more


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