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Germany 1914 ­ 1945
Culture and Propaganda
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What Was Weimar Culture Like?
In the 1920's a lively and modern culture was developed under the Weimar Republic. With peace
at home and abroad and a new prosperity for some at least there was a cultural revival. Writers,
poets, artists and filmmakers flourished. Artists such as Grosz, Klee and Kandinsky and
international reputations, while Berlin became famous for its jazz bands and daring cabaret acts.
Going to clubs was a major past time. By 1927 there were over 700 jazz bands in Berlin.
Before the First World War there had been strict censorship in Germany. However, during the
time of the Weimar Republic restrictions were removed. Cabaret acts performed songs criticising
the government, sex was openly discussed and Germany became famous for its transvestite balls,
naked dancing and nightclubs.
The 1920's were a golden age for German filmmaking. Films made by German directors such as
Fritz Long were technically advanced and attracted large audiences. Actresses like Marlene
Dietrich became very popular, playing strong and glamorous female characters.
In modern architecture the Bauhaus school led the world. Bauhaus architects made use of
modern materials like steel and plate and glass to design new and exciting houses, galleries,
apartments and shops.
However not everyone approved of the cultural revival that took place during the 20's. Some
thought that Weimar culture represented a moral decline and that things had gone too far. They
were shocked about the club scene in Berlin and argued for a return to simple and traditional
values. The Nazis also thought this.…read more

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How did the Nazis Change Weimar Culture?
The Nazis ended the free expression that had existed during the times of the Weimar
government. They introduced strict controls. No books could be approved without permission
and only the Nazi approved artists could show their work.
Music and theatre
·Jazz music was banned as it was seen as black music.
·Nazis focused on folk music, marching songs and classical music made by German artists.
·Theatre production focused on German history and Nazi politics.
·Content of plays controlled
·Hitler had strict ideas about art and had wanted to be an artist himself.
·He did not like modern art and found it unpatriotic.
·The purpose of Nazi art was to glorify the `Master Race' and celebrate healthy, strong Aryans.
·Art was mainly Aryan heroes, military figures or images of the ideal family.
·1937 House of German Art was opened to show how art had improved.
·Hitler believed architecture should influence people's lives.
·Public buildings were `monumental style'
·Family homes were to be `country style'…read more

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How did the Nazis Use Propaganda to Control the German People?
In 1928, Josef Goebbels was chosen to run the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda and
Enlightenment. He put Hitler's ideas into practise brilliantly. He took control of all mass
media. He made newspapers and posters carry the strong, simple, repeated slogans of the
Nazis. Through censorship he prevented the German people from hearing any conflicting
Newspapers Rallies Radios
·All anti-Nazi papers were ·They were used to present ·Goebbels had full
shut down. an image of order and control of broadcasting.
·Jews banned from the control. ·Programmes were
profession. ·A huge stadium in mostly Hitler's speeches
·Goebbels' Ministry of Nuremberg was especially and German music.
Propaganda sent out daily built for rallies. ·Foreign programmes
instructions telling ·They gave the impression could not be picked up.
newspapers what to print. of power and unity. ·Cheap radios were
·Display boards were set up made so that lots of
in public. Germans could listen to
the Nazi message.
·Loudspeakers were set
up.…read more

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Books Film
·Nazis organised official book · Goebbels controlled all of the films
burnings. made.
·They burnt books by communists, ·Before films there was always a
Jews, anyone they disproved of and newsreel film to reinforce the Nazi
books with content they did not message to viewers.
approve of. ·Pro Nazi and anti-Jewish films were
·This prevented Germans from made for example The Eternal Jew.
reading and thinking beyond the Nazi
·New books were censored by
Goebbels.…read more

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Why Was Propaganda Important for Hitler's Image?
Sport as propaganda: The 1936 Olympics
Berlin was selected as the venue for the 1936 Olympic Games. Goebbels thought that
this would be a great opportunity to:
·Improve the reputation of Germany abroad.
·Show that Aryan race was superior to all other races.
·Increase German national pride, thereby making Hitler and the Nazis were popular.
Goebbels built a brand new stadium, and used new technology. There were television
cameras for the first time and the most sophisticated timing devices were installed.
Many were impressed with how well the games were organised and the modern
facilities for athletes and spectators. However the heavy presence of SS soldiers did
not make a favourable impression on some visitors.…read more

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