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A summary of gender theories
English language AS…read more

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Robin Lakoff: women
· Hedge- e.g. `sort of', `kind of', `it seems like'
· Use (super) polite form- `would you mind'
· Use tag questions- `your going to dinner aren't you'
· Use empty adjective- divine, lovely, adorable
· Use direct quotation- men paraphrase more often
· Have a special lexicon- women use more words for things like colours, men for sports
· Use question intonation in declarative statements- `what school do you attend? Eton
· Speak less frequently
· Overuse qualifiers- `I think that'
· Apologise more- `I'm sorry, but I think that...'
· Avoid coarse language or expletives-
· Use indirect commands and requests- `my isn't it cold in here?'- really a request to turn
the heat on
· Use more intensifiers- `I'm so glad you came!'
· Lack a sense of humour…read more

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Zimmerman and west and Beattie
· Men are more likely to interrupt then women…read more

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Deborah Tannen
Men vs. Women
Status vs. Support
Independence vs. Intimacy
Advice vs. Understanding
Information vs. Feelings
Orders vs. Proposals
Conflict vs. compromise…read more

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Peter Trudgill
· Men were less likely and women more likely to use prestige
pronunciation of certain speech sounds
· In aiming for higher prestige the women tended towards
hypercorrectness. Men would often use a low prestige
pronunciation-thereby seeking covert (hidden) prestige by
appearing `tough' or `down to earth'…read more

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Jennifer Coates
· House talk- its distinguishing function is the exchange of
information and resources connected with the female role as
an occupation
· Scandal- a considered judging of the behaviour of others, and
women in particular
· Bitching
· Chatting…read more

Slide 7

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