Gender studies

A brief and by no means complete list of studies which can be used for the 'gender' part of the PSYA3 exam

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Gender ­ key studies/theories
Name of psychologist/study Study Issues
Batista family (androgen 4 children raised as males until 1979
insensitivity) surge of testosterone at Happened to other
puberty members of the family
­ expecting it?
David Reimer Born male, botched Identical twin brother
circumcision, raised female as a control
but changed back to male Suggests biological
after puberty
Quadagno Monkeys exposed to Animal study ­
testosterone prenatally generalisable?
engaged in more aggressive Ignores confounding
variables such as social
Buss 37 cultures, 10,000 Large sample size
participants, analysis of lonely Can be explained by
hearts ads ­ women <3 social roles ­ women
resources etc.
earn less, want more
resources, younger
women are more
obedient, men want
dominance supported
by Eagly and Wood
Baron-Cohen E-S theory ­ women are Implications for
better at empathising, men careers etc BUT
are better at systematising perhaps not as
applicable to modern
day office jobs
Money and Erdhart Biosocial Theory ­ once a Considers both nature
biological male/female is and nurture
born, social labelling and
differential treatment

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Eagly and Wood Social Role Theory ­ selective Social roles grow out
pressures only cause physical of biologically
differences which cause sex determined
role allocations which cause
differences (both
psychological differences ­
psychological differences are physically and
a consequence of the psychologically)
different assigned roles
Eagly and Wood (again) When women had a higher Supports the idea of
status (division of labour less social roles
pronounced), sex differences determining gender
in mating became less
Kohlberg Gender constancy; Labelling Suggests that children
(2-3 ½…read more

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Martin and Little Children under 4 showed no Supports Gender
signs of gender stability but Schema Theory
displayed strong gender
Martin and Halverson Children under 6 recalled more Supports Gender
pictures of gender consistent Schema Theory
people then non gender
Durkin While couples may agree to Suggests that gender
share domestic duties role division may have
theoretically, in practice, this a biological basis
doesn't happen
Coates et al Boy developed GID as a Case study
defensive reaction to his Not all people develop…read more

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Direct tuition is more
important than
modelling ­ "boys
toys" ­ still played
with them even after
girls had, wouldn't play
with girls toys even
when they saw boys
playing with them
Bussey and Bandura On TV, females are portrayed Supported by Hodges
as weak and men are seen to who found that
be helping the women and children who were
being independant
more exposed to such
media displayed
greater gender
Smith and Lloyd Observed parents…read more

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Mead Papua New Guinea tribes Men were always
(Arapesh, Mundugumor, more aggressive than
Tchambuli) ­ A=neither women
aggressive, M- both
Freeman ­ worked
aggressive, T- females more
aggressive with native Samoans,
they told Mead what
she wanted to hear
Katsurada In Japan, men don't seek to Suggests that gender
be `macho' as in America but roles do not apply
rather "well rounded in the worldwide
arts" ­ a trait considered
feminine…read more


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