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VERBAL ABUSE
· Connell: "rich vocabulary of abuse" ­ abuse is one of the way
that gender domination and sexual identities are reinforced
· E.g. name calling ­ boys pick on girls so that they
behave/dress in a certain way
· Lees: boys called girls `slags' if they were sexually active and
`drags' if they weren't
· Paetcher: name-calling shapes gender identity and maintains
patriarchy
· `Gay', `queer' and `lezzie' used to `police' sexual identities
· Parker: boys labelled as `gay' of they were friendly with
girls/female teachers
THIS REINFORCES GENDER NORMS.…read more

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MALE PEER GROUPS
· Male peer groups use verbal abuse to reinforce what
is meant by "masculinity"
· Mac an Ghaill Parnell School: `macho lads' (w/c)
were dismissive of other w/c boys that worked hard
and wanted to get m/c jobs
· `Real Englishmen' (m/c) tried to show `effortless
achievement' by succeeding without having to try
although most tried in secret
· Redman and Mac an Ghaill: Macho lads in lower
school became real Englishmen in sixth form ­ shift
from toughness to intellectual ability…read more

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TEACHERS AND DISCIPLINE
· Haywood and Mac an Ghaill found that male
teachers told boys off for `behaving like girls' ad
teased tem when they got lower marks than girls
· Teachers tended to ignore the verbal abuse that
the boys gave the girls and sometimes blamed
the girls
· Askew and Ross: male teachers were protective
over female teachers and `rescue' them from
disruptive pupils reinforces gender identity
that women cannot cope.…read more

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THE MALE GAZE
· Gender identities can be controlled in a visual way
· Mac and Ghaill called this the `male gaze' ­ male
pupils/teachers look at girls as if they are sexual
objects and make judgements about their
appearance
· Male gaze= surveillance so that dominant
heterosexual masculinity can be reinforced and
femininity devalued
· Also a way for boys prove masculinity to their
friends ­ telling of stories and sexual conquests
· If they don't show their heterosexuality, they may be
called `gay'…read more

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DOUBLE STANDARDS
· Double standard means we can apply one set of standards to one group
but a different set to another
· Lees found a double standard between sexual morality boys boast about
their sexual exploits but call girls `slags' if they don't have steady boyfriends
or dress in a certain way
· Sexual conquest is approved of and gains status for boys, it's also ignored by
male teachers but for girls, `promiscuity' attracts a negative label
· Feminists say double standards show patriarchal ideology and makes male
power and devaluing women seem acceptable
ALL OF THESE FACTORS HELP TO REINFORCE GENDER INEQUALITY.…read more

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