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· To learn what gender socialization is
· To learn key studies in gender…read more

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Sex & Gender
· The term sex refers to the biological
differences between males and females.
· The concept gender refers to the cultural
expectations that society associates with
masculinity and femininity- men and women
are expected to conform to
· Gender expectations are transmitted to the
next generation through gender-role
· Masculinity and femininity are socially
constructed rather than a product of biology…read more

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Hegemonic definitions of masculinity
· Connell (2002)- hegemonic masculinity and
femininity- set of ideas has allocated very
distinct family roles to men and women. ­
women were expected to occupy the
maternal role and take on responsibility for
housework and childcare.- men were
expected to be the head of house and the
breadwinner.- range of characteristics were
associated with males and females that shape
their behaviour- females were expected to
show emotion men weren't.…read more

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Hegemonic masculinity
· Boys tend to be socialised into the style of masculinity which
stresses toughness, competition, hierarchy and aggression.
This style is called hegemonic because it crowds out other
masculine identity styles such as artistic and gay masculine
identities. (Connell, 1995)
· Young men are put under great pressure to present
themselves as hard, strong and independent. So they learn to
conceal any girly signs of gentleness, kindness and
vulnerability.…read more

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Peer groups
· Emma Reynold 2001
· The power of Hegemonic Masculinity- study primary school
boys in their final year.
· Boys who were studious or academic risked being teased and
ridiculed. Although they worked hard they adopted strategies
to avoid being seen as feminine.
· Boys developed masculine attitudes e.g tough and aggressive
to cover girly/ feminine traits e.g kind and studious. To stop
from being bullied.…read more

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