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GCSE Spanish Grammar Revision Notes


NOTES

Due to the fact that my laptop could not use accents and inverted
question or exclamation marks I could not use them, so I
apologise.
The notes are to be used in conjunction with your Vocabulary
notes.
I hope the notes help!





BUENA SUERTE!…

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1. First Person I
2. Second Person You
3. Third Person He/ She/ It/ They




SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND POSSESIVE
ADJECTIVES


Subject pronouns indicate who is performing the action of a verb. The
Subject Pronouns are :

Yo I
Tu You
El, ella, usted He, She, You
Nosotros We
Ellos, ellas,…

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Articles

ALL ARTICLES GO before THE NOUNS!


Definite Articles

They ALL mean `THE'

El
Los
La
Las


Indefinite Articles

They are used for less specific items. They mean `A, AN or SOME'

Uno
Unos
Una
Unas


The Neuter Article

Lo

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With an adjective/s :
Lo + Adjective = The { x } thing
X = Adjective

For example :

Lo malo que The bad thing

Lo interesante que ­ The interesting thing

Lo fenomenal que ­ The phenomenal thing

Lo emocionante que ­ The exciting thing





Que es lo que…

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Eg. 2. What I think is that there is too much pollution in the sea.

Lo que pienso es hay mucha pollution en el mar.



The business of/ the matter of

Eg. 1. Let us discuss the matter of environmental pollution.

Debemos discutir lo de la pollucion del medio ambiente.…

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NB. These expressions or grammatical concepts can be applied to
most topics but I learnt it in conjunction to speaking about your Town
and Country and giving your opinions of it.





Isimo + Isima

These two words would coincide with English suffixes and they both
express the idea of `REALLY'.…

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Noche, yo me acuesto ­ Tonight I will sleep
Also used to express THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
P. C. T. = Estar {conjugated} + The Gerund { Ar verbs ­ Ando Er/
Ir verbs Iendo}
Estoy escribiendo. I am writing
Question words = Do/ Does/ Shall
Comes? Do you eat?…

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O
Es
E
Emos
En

Eg. Vivir

Vivo

Vives

Vive

Vivemos

Viven



NB. THIS MUST BE PRACTICED OFTEN!







Expressing Distances


1. Estar a + distance + andando {walking} Conduciendo {driving}

Esta a tres kilometros andando.
Esta a una hora conduciendo.

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2. Tardar + time= To take

Tardo cinco minutos en llegar al / a la / a

I took 5 minutes to arrive at.................



3. El viaje dura cinco minutos en coche/ tren/ bicicleta/ avion etc
The trip lasts 5 minutes by car/train/bicycle/plane etc





Adonde ir de vacationes?

Ir de…

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Eg. Has comido? Have you eaten?



IRREGULAR PERFECT TENSE VERBS



Abierto

Cubierto

Dicho

Escrito

Hecho

Muerto

Puesto

Roto

Visto

Vuelto

Verbs that have a VOWEL before the er/ir ending put an accent over the
i.



Caido

Oido

Leido


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