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AQA GCSE Chemistry Unit 1

C 1: Fundamental ideas:

C 1.1. Atoms, elements and compounds:

All substances are made up of atoms.
Elements contain only one atom.
Compounds contain more than one atom.
An atom has a tiny nucleus in its centre, surrounded by electrons.

C 1.2. Atomic structure:


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Limestone is made mainly of calcium carbonate.
Limestone is widely used in the building industry.
The calcium carbonate in limestone breaks down when we heat it strongly to make calcium oxide and carbon
dioxide. The reaction is called thermal decomposition.

C 2.2. Reaction of carbonates:

Carbonates react with dilute acid…

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o Stainless steels, which are resistant to corrosion.

C 3.3. Aluminum and titanium:

Aluminum and titanium are useful because they are resistant to corrosion.
Aluminum requires the electrolysis of molten aluminum oxide to extract it as it is too reactive to reduce it using
Aluminum and titanium are expensive…

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Sulfur impurities in fuels burn to form sulfur dioxide which can cause acid rain.
Changing the conditions in which we burn hydrocarbon fuels can change the products made.
In insufficient oxygen we get poisonous carbon monoxide gas formed. We can also get particulates of carbon
(soot) and unburnt hydrocarbon s…

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C 5.4. Plastic waste:

Non-biodegradable plastics cause unsightly rubbish, can harm wildlife and take up space in landfill sites.
Biodegradable plastics are decomposed by the action of microorganisms in soil. Making plastics with starch
granules in their structure help the microorganisms break down a plastic.
We can make biodegradable plastics…

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C 7: Our changing planet:

C 7.1. Structure of the earth:

The earth consists of a series of layers. Starting from the surface we have the crust, the mantle then the core in
the centre. A thin layer of gases called the atmosphere surrounds the earth.
The earths limited resources…

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