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FORCES AND WAVES
Turning forces and centre of mass:
Moment = Force (n) x perpendicular distance (m)
Centre of mass is directly below point of suspension.
Find CofM by suspend, draw line, suspend, cross line

Balanced moments and stability:
Total anti-clockwise = total clockwise. If equal, the object won't turn.…

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Ray diagram for CONCAVE MIRROR: incident ray parallel to axis pass through focal point when
reflected.
Top of object ­ line parallel to axis to mirror and line passing through focal point to mirror.
I-ray through focal point reflected parallel and I-ray parallel passes through focal point.
Mark 2 reflections.…

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High frequency means shorter wavelength.

Ultrasound (frequencies above 20 kHz):
Partially reflected at a boundary between media. Some is reflected back and some is refracted.
Time taken for reflections to show represents distance.
If given speed of sound in medium, can work out distance between boundaries (d = v x…

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Produces AC voltage.
DYNAMOS ­ they rotate magnet, not coil.

Transformers:
Change AC voltages.
Step-up : more turns in secondary coil than primary. Step down: more turns in primary.
Primary coil produces magnetic field within iron core. Hardly any lost to second coil. Due to AC
current, there is a…

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