GCSE AQA Biology 3 very detailed revision notes

These notes are very detailed and go beyond what we need to know for the syllabus but I find this helps me to understand. If you're the same, then I suggest you read my notes here. If not, then don't worry too much about learning some of the bits you've never seen before. Also, I didn't intend on distributing these so the spelling and grammar's probably not great but its all accurate and useful.

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Preview of GCSE AQA Biology 3 very detailed revision notes

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Biology 3
Contents
Gas and solute exchange
Diffusion
Osmosis
Structure of plants
Leaves
Stomata conditions
Other parts
Xerophytes
Transport of mineral ions into a root hair
Transport of water into root hairs
The breathing system
Overview
Breathing in
Breathing out
Alveoli
Absorption in the digestive system
Circulatory system
Valves
Heart
Double circulatory system
Single circulatory systems
Capillaries
Blood
Red blood cells
Blood plasma
Exercise
Responses
Terminology
Glycogen
Waste products
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Biology 3
Respiration and oxygen debt
Aerobic respiration
Anaerobic respiration
Oxygen debt
Athletes
Excretion
The Kidney
Urea
Urinary system
Nephrons
Kidney Failure
Dialysis
Renal dialysis
Peritoneal dialysis
Kidney transplant
Opt-in or opt-out
Theory of Biogenesis
Growth curve of micro-organisms
Using microorganisms to make foods
Bacteria and fungi
Cheese
Yoghurt
Yeast
Bread
Beer
Wine
Fermenters
Other products of fermenters
Penicillin
Mycoproteins
Fuels from microorganisms
General comparison of Gasohol and Biogas
2…read more

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Biology 3
Gasohol
Biogas
Scales
Biogas generators
Batch generator
Continuous generators
Designing a generator
Environmental and economic effects of using biofuels
Aseptic technique
3…read more

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Biology 3
Biology 3
Gas and solute exchange
Life processes need substances before they can occur
Waste substances need removing
These substances move by diffusion, osmosis or active transport
Diffusion
Particles move from high concentration to low concentration
It moves along a concentration gradient
Osmosis
Similar to diffusion but only refers to water
Water moves across a partially permeable membrane from high to low water
concentration
Structure of plants
Leaves
Carbon dioxide diffuses into the air spaces within the leaf.…read more

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Biology 3
Night Narrower Preserve water when carbon
dioxide isn't needed for
photosynthesis
Day Open Allow carbon dioxide in for
photosynthesis
Other parts
The stem supports the plant and leaves and it lifts up the leaves towards light
The stem also contains the phloem and xylem
The phloem transports sugars away from the leaf to other areas for respiration
The xylem supplies water and mineral ions from the roots to the leaves and other areas
Xerophytes
These are plants that often live in the desert…read more

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Biology 3
The lungs are protected by the rib cage
The air first passes though the mouth, past the epiglottis and then into the trachea
The trachea splits into two bronchi to each lung
The bronchi split into smaller tubes called bronchioles
These end with alveoli where gaseous exchange takes place
Breathing in
The intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract
The intercostal muscles pull the rib cage and sternum up and out
The diaphragm goes down and flattens, creating a negative pressure in the pleural cavity.…read more

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Biology 3
Arteries carry blood away from the heart at high pressure. It is usually oxygenated except
for in the pulmonary artery
Arteries eventually split off into arterioles and then capillaries which take blood to every
cell in the body.
The veins then take the used, deoxygenated blood back to the heart at low pressure.
However, the pulmonary vein is an exception.…read more

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Biology 3
Heart
Double circulatory system
Blood goes twice through the heart for one trip around the body
A double circulatory system is needed in mammals and birds as there is a higher rate of
respiration and more oxygen demand. Since pressure drops after each capillary bed
(humans have two main ones, the lungs and the rest of the body), pressure needs to be
risen after each capillary bed to ensure optimum diffusion rates of oxygen.…read more

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Biology 3
Capillaries
Blood
Contains:
o White blood cells (part of the immune system
o Red blood cells (carry oxygen)
o Plasma (carry everything else)
o Platelets (for blood clotting)
Red blood cells
Carry oxygen from the lungs to all other cells
Biconcave disk to increase surface area for diffusion, and also makes it "squishy" and
pliable
No nucleus for more room for oxygen (oxyhaemoglobin)
Made in the bone marrow
Erythropoietin in a hormone produced by the kidneys which stimulates red blood cell
production
People…read more

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Biology 3
Blood plasma
The blood plasma carries nearly everything
o Red blood cells
o White blood cells
o Platelets
o Glucose
o Amino acids
o Carbon dioxide (hydrogen carbonate ions)
o Urea
o Hormones
o Antibodies
o Antitoxins
Exercise
When you exercise, your body adapts to an increased demand of oxygen and glucose
This is because more is needed to release energy from respiration to contract muscles
Responses
Terminology
Pulmonary ventilation = breathing rate (bpm) x tidal volume
Tidal volume = volume of each…read more

Comments

Florence Chapman

this is perfect!! thank you

Anisa -Team GR

Really useful!

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