GCSE AQA A Gegography

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  • Created on: 10-06-12 17:08
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Coastal Management
There are two ways we can deal with coastal flooding and erosion
Hard Engineering ­ Man-made structures built to control the flow of the sea and reduce flooding and
Soft engineering ­ schemes set up using knowledge of the sea and its processes to reduce the
effects of flooding and erosion
Hard Engineering
Sea Wall ­ concrete structure which absorbs the energy of the waves, provides a pathway for
tourists, may last for many years
Cost: £2000 per metre
Groynes ­ wooden fences or piles of large rocks, built out into sea to stop longshore drift, helps
build sea on one side, stop the transport of sediment, increases the risk of erosion along the coast
Costs: £2000 per metre
Rock Armour ­ Large boulders pile up at the foot of cliffs to absorb energy if the waves and stop
them from eroding cliffs, looks more natural
Cost: 300 per metre
Gabions ­ Rocks or boulders held in wire mesh cages, used to protect vulnerable areas from
destructive waves, cheapest but its not very strong
Cost: £100 per metre
In favour for Hard engineering Against Hard engineering
Local people whose homes are in danger Local taxpayers who don't live on the coast
Local tourist business, like hotels which are near Environmentalists, fear the natural beauty will be
the coast destroyed
Local politicians who want to support residents People who live down drift and might lose their
and businesses beach
Soft Engineering (Much more cheaper and Environmentally Friendly)
Beach Nourishment ­ adding more sand in front of cliffs, natural protection because beach absorbs
wave energy but sand has to come from somewhere else
Sand dune regeneration ­ allowing sand dunes to build up around wooden structures, sand dunes
absorbs wave energy and creates new habitats

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Salt marsh creation ­ allowing sea to flood over a large area creating salt marshes, new habitats,
reduces risk of flooding
Managed retreat ­ abandoning the existing defences building new ones further inland creating salt
marsh, some may loose land, houses, businesses, reduced flooding, new habitats
Longshore drift- the movement of sediment
Dunes ­ Hills of sand
How beaches are formed:
In the beginning big rocks after erosion big rocks broke from cliffs next those big rocks then broke
into sharp rocks after that through…read more

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The size and energy of a wave is influenced by:
How long the wind has been blowing
The strength of the wind
How far the wave has travelled (the fetch)
2 types of waves and there effects on beaches:
Constructive ­ low wave in height, stronger swash than back wash causing beach to be built up with
deposited material, create a wide and gently sloping beach
Destructive ­ High wave in height, stronger backwash than swash causing beach material to be
removed from the beach…read more

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Waves cause erosion through hydraulic action and form a crack in the cliff which then overtime
enlarges as erosion continues turning into a wave cut notch. Then the rock above becomes un-stable
and eventually collapses, repeating of the collapses results in the cliff retreating and the wave cut
platform is the platform left behind as the cliff retreats.
Caves, stacks and stumps: along a Headland
Caves occur when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face.…read more


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