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Coastal Management

There are two ways we can deal with coastal flooding and erosion

Hard Engineering ­ Man-made structures built to control the flow of the sea and reduce flooding and

Soft engineering ­ schemes set up using knowledge of the sea and its processes to reduce the

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Salt marsh creation ­ allowing sea to flood over a large area creating salt marshes, new habitats,
reduces risk of flooding

Managed retreat ­ abandoning the existing defences building new ones further inland creating salt
marsh, some may loose land, houses, businesses, reduced flooding, new habitats

Longshore drift- the movement…

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The size and energy of a wave is influenced by:

How long the wind has been blowing
The strength of the wind
How far the wave has travelled (the fetch)

2 types of waves and there effects on beaches:

Constructive ­ low wave in height, stronger swash than back wash…

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Waves cause erosion through hydraulic action and form a crack in the cliff which then overtime
enlarges as erosion continues turning into a wave cut notch. Then the rock above becomes un-stable
and eventually collapses, repeating of the collapses results in the cliff retreating and the wave cut
platform is…


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