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5 functions of a skellington
1. Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the
2. Shape - gives shape to the body and makes you tall or short.
3. Support - holds your vital organs in place when playing sport. The vertebral
column holds the body upright.
4. Movement - muscle are attached to bones, which are jointed. When the
muscles contract the bones move.
5. Blood production - red blood cells (to carry oxygen) and white blood cells
(to protect against infection) are produced in the bone marrow of some
support the head and neck
top vertebra (atlas) allows head to nod
second vertebra (axis) allows head to rotate
ribs are attached to the thoracic vertebrae, making a protective cage
allow some movement, bending forward, backward and side to side
large range of movement allows much flexibility; bending forward, backward
and side to side
prone to injury
bones of sacral vertebrae are fused together
make a strong base and transmit force from legs to upper body
fused vertebrae, no special use
cartilage discs between vertebrae act
Cartilage reduces friction. Acts as a shock absorber.
Synovial fluid lubricates the joint.
Synovial membrane produces synovial fluid.
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Tendon joins muscle to bone enabling movement.
Ligament joins bone to bone, stabilising the joint.
In sport you move your limbs in different directions using joint actions. Use the
following terms to describe the movements:
Abduction Movement away from the midline of the body
Adduction Movement towards the midline of the body
Extension Straightening limbs at a joint
Flexion Bending the limbs at a joint.…read more
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Hyaline cartilage - covers the ends of the bones, stops them rubbing
together and absorbs shock.
Epiphysis - the `head' of the bone.
Cancellous bone - spongy bone that stores the red bone marrow; where
blood cells are made.
Epiphyseal plate the area where bones grow in length.
Diaphysis - the shaft.
Compact bone hard, dense bone. It gives strength to the hollow part of
Periosteum a protective layer where there is no hyaline cartilage.…read more