First 575 words of the document:
Explain and illustrate two ways of distinguishing actions from bodily movement
The main distinction between actions and bodily movements is that an action had a reason to occur whereas a bodily movement is caused. Actions have reasons, which we have in our intentions or
desires that can be justified whereas movements are caused by reactions, which cannot be justified.
An action may be preceded by mental states and events such as desires or intentions. Bodily movements require no such thing. For example, reflexes are an action, which cannot be justified, as it is a
reaction caused by our mental states and neurological chain reaction.
We can justify our actions and discuss the reasons behind them like why we did it. Bodily movements cannot be justified like this as they are a result of cause and effect. Suppose somebody did the Nazi
salute they can justify this action as they have the intention to do it. Whereas somebody with a twitch has no control over it, it is a bodily movement caused by neurological activity.
Ultimately, actions can be described in terms of why whereas bodily movement is described in terms of cause and effect.
Explain and illustrate how determinism might undermine rationality
Determinism is the view that a determinate set of conditions can only produce one outcome given fixed laws of nature. Therefore determinism must undermine rationality.
Normally we distinguish between actions and bodily movement but if determinism is true then there is no difference between them. So a Nazi salute, which is an action, and has a reason, in comparison
to a twitch, which is a bodily movement with a cause, is the same thing under determinism. If determinism is true, there is no difference between actions and movements.
We also distinguish between reasons and causes but again, if determinism were true it would undermine this distinction. For example, when someone acts out of character we would say they are
behaving irrationally. The same goes for someone who does a crime out of passion; we would say they had a reason to do so but determinism does not allow for this distinction.
If determinism is true we can only ever act one way meaning there is no rationality.
Explain and illustrate two distinctions between determinism and predestination
Determinism is the view that a determinate set of conditions can only produce one outcome due to the laws of nature. On the other hand, predestination is the religious doctrine that God is omniscient
so must already know how we will act therefore we are not free.
Determinism is about causality where a given set of conditions there can only be one outcome due to the laws of nature. It is based on the idea of causality, causal necessity and cause and effect.
Everything described as a mental activity can be reduced to physical activity in the body such as hormones or neurons.
Alternatively, predestination is the religious doctrine in which God in omniscient and has pre knowledge of how we will behave. If God knows the future and is truly omniscient then we are not free as
God already knows or has already decided our actions.
Ultimately, determinism is all about cause and effect whereas predestination is the idea that God is omniscient and because he knows everything we are not free.
Other pages in this set
Here's a taster:
Explain and illustrate the distinction between determinism and fatalism
Determinism is the view that a determinate set of conditions can only produce one outcome given fixed laws of nature. Fatalism is the concept that all events are predetermined and any attempt to
change the future is futile.
Determinism is about causality where a given set of conditions there can only be one outcome due to the laws of nature. It is based on the idea of causality, causal necessity and cause and effect.…read more