Factors involved in advacning the civil rights movement

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  • Created on: 03-11-14 21:37
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Factor Helped Hindered
CIVIL WAR Black soldiers received medals Blacks had higher mortality
1861-1865 = recognition. rates in the army.
Blacks had a feeling of Contraband camps = suffering
belonging through being and starvation of blacks.
accepted into the army. Education facilities were poor
Black Calvary and infantry and inadequate.
regiments remained ­ became Hatred from whites ­ fear of
Buffalo Soldiers. unemployment with blacks
Schools were established for taking jobs.
youths and adults. Not all slaves were freed.
The Emancipation
Proclamation in 1863 that
freed slaves in the 10 States
that were still part of the
The Thirteenth Amendment in
1865 to abolish slavery.
RECONSTRUCTIO 700,000 blacks were registered Freed black slaves lacked
N to vote in the South ­ South wealth so remained in the
Carolina had a black majority South and farmed.
(65%). Most remained trapped in
Freedom to move to other poverty as sharecroppers.
cities. Southern income was less than
Education made widely half of the North.
available through black White Republicans dominated
churches and the federal the South ­ no black Southern
Freedman's Bureau ­ % of governor.
illiterate blacks fell from 90 to Only 2 black US senators ­ one
70. of them was shot (Charles
Laws introduced by Republican Caldwell) by whites.
State governments to try to Whites remained fearful and
stop the Ku Klux Klan. hostile.
Congress passed 3 force Acts Anti-Negro Crusading group
giving President Grant legal and created in the 1890s by
military power to crush the Klan Southern politicians.
­ ended most of the Klan Individual states controlled
violence. education, voting, transport
and law enforcement.
Segregation of schools,
housing and public facilities
spread quickly of 1865.
Introduction of Jim Crow laws ­
Supreme Court did nothing.
1881-1915 Southern States
passed laws on separation in
trains, stations, theatres,

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Armed racist groups
established ­ Ku Klux Klan.
Ex-Confederate soldiers
continued violence ­ lynching.
BOOKER T. As a teacher he bought an old Northern militants thought he
WASHINGTON plantation in 1882 to set up a didn't fight enough for black
school to teach practical advancement.
subjects ­ believed the best Blacks felt that the limited
opportunities for blacks lay in economic gains were all they
industrial trade. could hope for.…read more

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MARTIN LUTHER Emerged through the In 1958 a fried of King criticised
KING JR Montgomery Bus Boycott as his account of the
the leader of the Montgomery Montgomery Bus Boycott for
Improvement Association. ­ giving the impression `that
Bus companies nearly went everything depended on you'.
bankrupt as 65% of their NAACP leader Roy Wilkins
customers were blacks. On 20th described King as
December 1956 the buses were presumptuous and
desegregated. self-provoking.…read more

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North but failed to have a
positive impact when New York
City's Mayor appealed for help.
Little changed in Birmingham
after King left ­ a bomb had
killed 4 young black girls and
the whites arrested were freed
due to lack of evidence.
The SNCC felt betrayed during
Selma (1965) and accused King
of cowardice when he made
them retreat after President
Johnson's plea to call off the
march. The SCLC raised money
in Selma and then left and
spent it in the north.…read more

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Sent the Mississippi National exposed US domestic
Guard and US army regulars to problems during the Cold War.
intervene when James Failed to fulfil his presidential
Meredith tried to attend promised on housing.
University (1962). Delayed the Civil Rights Bill as
Sent in federal troops to he felt that a southern
Alabama during the University filibuster would overcome it.
integration and declared black
inequality as immoral.
Introduced a bill when he
became disappointed that
businessmen were slow to
employ blacks and desegregate
public facilities.…read more


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