F322 Key Definitions

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F322 ­ Organic Chemistry Revision
F322 Key Revision Notes
Addition Polymer ­ A very long chain molecular chain formed by repeated addition reactions of many
unsaturated alkene molecules.
Addition Polymerisation ­ The process in which unsaturated alkene molecules add on to a growing
polymer chain one at a time to form a very long saturated molecular chain.
Addition reaction ­ A reaction in which the reactant is added to an unsaturated molecule to create a
saturated molecule.
Alicyclic Hydrocarbon ­ A hydrocarbon with the carbon atoms joined in a circle.
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon ­ A hydrocarbon with carbon atoms in a straight line.
Alkanes ­ The homologous series that has the general formula of CnH(2n+2).(Any of the series of
saturated hydrocarbons.
Alkenes ­ Any series of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing a double bond and having the general
formula CnH2n.
Alkyl Group ­ An alkane with a hydrogen atom removed e.g. CH3.
Atom Economy ­ Molecular mass of desired product x100
Sum of molecular masses of all products
Average bond enthalpy ­ The average enthalpy change that takes place when breaking is homolytic
fission, 1 mol of a give type of bond in the molecules of a gaseous species.
Boltzmann Distribution ­ The distribution of energies of molecules at a particular temperature,
usually shown on a graph.
Bond Enthalpy ­ The enthalpy change that takes place when braking by homolytic fission 1 mol of a
given bond of molecules of a gaseous species.
Carbanion ­ An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a positive charge.
Carbocation ­ An organic ion in which a carbon atom has a negative charge.
Catalyst ­ A substance that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being used in the
CisTrans Isomerism ­ A special type of E/Z isomerism in which the none hydrogen group and
hydrogen on each of the C on the C=C double bond: the cis isomer (Z isomer) has the H atoms on
each carbon the same side: the trans isomer (E isomer) has the H atoms on each Carbon atom but
on different sides.
Cracking ­ The breaking down of longchained saturated hydrocarbons to form a mixture of shorter
chained alkanes.
Curley arrow ­ A symbol used in reaction mechanisms to show the movement of an electron pair in
the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
E/Z Isomerism ­ A type of stereoisomerism in which different groups attached to the C=C double
bond may be arranged differently in space because of the restricted rotation of the C=C bond.
Electrophilic Addition ­ A type of addition reaction which an electrophile is attracted to an electron
rich centre where it accepts a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
Elimination Reaction ­ The removal of a molecule from a saturated molecule to make it an
unsaturated molecule.
Endothermic ­ A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is greater than the enthalpy of the
reactants resulting in heating being taken in.
Enthalpy ­ The heat content stored in a chemical reaction.
Enthalpy Change of Combustion ­ The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a
substance completely reacts in excess oxygen under standard conditions, all products and
reactants being in their standard states.
Enthalpy Change of Formation ­ The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a
compound in its standard state is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under
standard conditions.
Enthalpy Change of Reaction ­ The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar
quantities expressed in a chemical equation under standard conditions, all reactants and products
being in the sanders states.
Enthalpy Cycle ­ A diagram showing alternate routes between reactants and products that allows
indirect determination of an enthalpy change from other known enthalpy changes such as Hess'

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F322 ­ Organic Chemistry Revision
Enthalpy Profile Diagram ­ A diagram for a reaction to compare the enthalpy of the reactants with
the enthalpy of the products.
Esterification ­ The reaction of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid to produce an ester and water.
Exothermic ­ A reaction in which the enthalpy of the products are smaller than the enthalpy of the
reactants resulting in heat loss to the surroundings.…read more

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F322 ­ Organic Chemistry Revision
Substitution Reaction ­ In a reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with an atom or
different group of atoms.
Termination ­ The step at the end of a radical substitution when radicals come together to form one
Troposphere ­ The lowest layer of the earth's atmosphere, extending from the earth's surface up to
about 7km (above the poles) and about 20km (above the tropics).
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon ­ A hydrocarbon containing carbontocarbon double bonds.…read more



carbacation and carbanion definitions are all the way around 

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