F214: Respiration revision notes

My revision notes that I made for repsiration, I hope you might find them useful :)

(All ideas and definitions from Heinemann OCR Biology textbook)

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  • Created by: Jess
  • Created on: 04-01-13 16:24
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Respiration: the process whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules is converted into the
chemical potential energy of ATP.
Why do we need to respire?
We need to respire to produce ATP which is the universal energy currency. We need ATP for anabolic
(building of large molecules from smaller ones) and catabolic (breaking down of large molecules) reactions,
known collectively as metabolism.
Metabolic Processes:
Active transport
Synthesis of large molecules from smaller ones
Replication of DNA and synthesis of organelles before cells divide
Activation of chemicals
ATP ­ adenosine triphosphate
phosphorylated nucleotide
Adenosine (adenine and ribose)
3 phosphate groups
ATP ADP + Pi = 30.6kj mol-1
Small and soluble to move easily around the cell
Can't leave the cell ­ cells have an immediate
energy supply
On average we use 25-50kg of ATP a day by our
body only has 5kg at one time.
Coenzymes: are molecules that help enzymes carry out oxidation and reduction
reactions. They work like shuttles to transport atoms or molecules from one
enzyme-controlled reaction to the next.
NAD ­ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Nicotinamide, adenine, ribose and 2 phosphate groups
NAD + 2H+ + 2e- reduced NAD
Hydrogen atoms are transported to oxidative phosphorylation.
Coenzyme A (CoA)
Adenosine, 3 phosphate groups, pantothenic acid, small
cysteamine group
Carries acetate groups from the link reaction to the Krebs
Glycolysis ­ cell cytoplasm
2 x pyruvate (3C)
2 x reduced NAD
2 x ATP

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Link reaction and Krebs cycle ­ mitochondrial matrix
For each molecule of glucose these happen twice, as there will be two molecules of pyruvate.
Link reaction:
Pyruvate is dehydrogenated by pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymes and NAD accepts the hydrogen
atoms becoming reduced.
Pyruvate is decarboxylated by pyruvate hydrogenase enzymes.
Coenzyme A accepts acetate to become Acetyl CoA and carries it to the Krebs Cycle.…read more

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The 4C compound is converted to another 4C compound and substrate-level phosphorylation
occurs forming a molecule of ATP.
The 4C compound is converted to another 4C compound and dehydrogenated, the pair of
hydrogen atoms are accepted by the coenzyme FAD which is reduced.
The 4C compound is dehydrogenated again and forms oxaloacetate and reduced NAD.…read more

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Mushroom shaped particles were removed and no ATP was produced, proving the involvement of
ATP synthase.
Oligomycin was added and no ATP was produced, therefore ions need to travel through channels
of ATP synthase.
The pH of the matrix and intermembrane space was tested showing that the intermembrane space
has lower pH than the matrix, so there are more protons in the intermembrane space.…read more

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Fatty acids combine with coenzyme A to form a fatty acid CoA complex. This also converts ATP
AMP + 2Pi. This complex travels to the matrix and forms many acetyl CoA by the beta oxidation
pathway (formation of reduced NAD and reduced FAD). Acetyl CoA then enters the Krebs cycle
Reduced NAD is reoxidised during oxidative phosphorylation producing ATP.…read more


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