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Respiration
Respiration: the process whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules is converted into the
chemical potential energy of ATP.

Why do we need to respire?
We need to respire to produce ATP which is the universal energy currency. We need ATP for anabolic
(building of large molecules from smaller…

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Mitochondria




Link reaction and Krebs cycle ­ mitochondrial matrix
For each molecule of glucose these happen twice, as there will be two molecules of pyruvate.
Link reaction:
Pyruvate is dehydrogenated by pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymes and NAD accepts the hydrogen
atoms becoming reduced.
Pyruvate is decarboxylated by pyruvate hydrogenase enzymes.
Coenzyme…

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The 4C compound is converted to another 4C compound and substrate-level phosphorylation
occurs forming a molecule of ATP.
The 4C compound is converted to another 4C compound and dehydrogenated, the pair of
hydrogen atoms are accepted by the coenzyme FAD which is reduced.
The 4C compound is dehydrogenated again and…

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Mushroom shaped particles were removed and no ATP was produced, proving the involvement of
ATP synthase.
Oligomycin was added and no ATP was produced, therefore ions need to travel through channels
of ATP synthase.
The pH of the matrix and intermembrane space was tested showing that the intermembrane space
has…

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Fatty acids combine with coenzyme A to form a fatty acid CoA complex. This also converts ATP
AMP + 2Pi. This complex travels to the matrix and forms many acetyl CoA by the beta oxidation
pathway (formation of reduced NAD and reduced FAD). Acetyl CoA then enters the Krebs cycle…

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