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Ecosystems are made up of abiotic and biotic factors. Abiotic factors are physical or chemical where
biotic factors are to do with other organisms. Within these ecosystems there can be many different
habitats, each with its own set of distinct conditions.…

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The diagram below shows the light-independent reaction also called the Calvin cycle.

This takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast.

In an ecosystem energy is transferred. Autotrophs make their own food, however heterotrophs
cannot make their own food so need to eat to gain energy. There are a number…

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used because every year new xylem vessels are formed and the diameter depends on season when
they grew (wide in spring, narrow in summer)

The sun radiates energy and is absorbed by the earth which then re-emits infra-red radiation. Gases
that stop infrared radiation from the sun, escaping from the…

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When we gently heat DNA to separate the double helix (hydrogen bonds break) and replace 1
strand of DNA with a chimps DNA strand we get a hybrid DNA. The more similar the DNA, the more
they will stick together. By comparing the sequence of bases in DNA or the…

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Rising temperatures themselves may contribute to more carbon dioxide.
Maintaining the Balance
We may be able to maintain the balance of the carbon cycle by sing biofuels and reforestation.
This is fuel that comes directly from plants. Because the amount of carbon dioxide released when
burnt is the same…

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