F212 - Biological Molecules

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  • Created on: 15-05-12 18:19
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Biological Molecules
We are made of biological molecule we get these from what we eat, we need food to:
Be used to make the building blocks of us
Used for energy
We get food into our body by eating. This prosses of breaking large molecules down into small
molecules is called Digestion there are two types:
Mechanical Digestion ­ Chewing
Chemical Digestion ­ Enzymes
We digest food to increase the surface area for absorption
Food is absorbed into the blood through the intestine
Absorption takes good biological molecules and passes out bad biological molecules.
Carbohydrates ­ Energy storage + supply and for structure ( In some organisms)
Proteins ­ Structure, Support, Enzymes, Antibodies, most Hormones are proteins
Vitamins & minerals ­ forms parts of some larger molecules to take part in some metabolic
reaction some act as co enzymes activators.
Lipids ­ Membranes, Energy supply, Thermal Insulation, Some hormones.
Nucleic Acids ­ Information Molecules, carry instructions for life.
Water ­ Takes part in many reactions supports plants/medium for most metabolic reactions,
Biological Molecules
Proteins 99% of our cell structures
Nucleic acid
All made up of the elements
- Carbon (C)
- Hydrogen (H)
- Oxygen (O)
- Nitrogen (N)
Biochemistry = Any chemical reaction which involves biological molecules
Metabolism= Sum of chemical reactions that take place in the body
Anabolic - Building up ­ Protein Synthesis

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Catabolic ­ Breaking Down
Forms long chains
Very stable
`back bone'
Biochemical & bonds
Carbon - Vacancy of 4
- Carbon has 4 electrons on the outer shell it needs to have 8 to be stable.…read more

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Condensation & hydrolosis
Biological monomers (monomers ) can be joined together by using condensation reactions
Polymers can be broken down using hydrolysis reactions
Condensation - Anabolic ­ Goes up
Hydrolysis ­ Catabolic ­ Breaks down
Condensation Hydrolysis
Water Removed Water Added
Covalent Bonds Formed Covalent Bonds Broken
Anabolic Catabolic
Condensation Reaction (Hydrolysis Reaction)
Water is removed and a new bond is formed
( Covalent and Glycosidic bond are the same thing)
OH = Hydroxyl
Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic forces between a positive parts…read more

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Of one molecule and a negative parts of another.
Glucose ­ C6 H12O6
- Energy release during respiration
Other Carbs used for storage e.g. Starch (plant) and Glycogens (animals)
Or for protection and support e.g. cellulose (plants)
One of any of the above is called a monosaccharaides
Two of any the above are called Polysaccharides
All monosaccharaides have similar properties:
Sweet tasting
Forms crystals
They are referred to as Hexosugars ( most common form of monosaccharaides) in a ring structures.…read more

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Glucose + Glucose + Glucose = Amylose (Polysaccharide)
Most glucose exists in Alpha () Glucose (H at Top)
Organisms have the Enzymes to break down the bonds between Alpha glucose molecules.…read more

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Biochemical Tests
Reducing Sugars Add Benedict's solution to the sample.
Heat this in a beaker of boiling water.
After a few minutes it should turn brick red for a positive result.
Reducing sugars include glucose, lactose and maltose.
Non-Reducing Boil the sample with hydrochloric acid.
After a few minutes add an alkali to neutralise it.
Add a few drops of Benedict's solution and boil again for a few minutes.
For a positive result it will turn brick red.
Non-reducing sugars include sucrose.…read more

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If there is protein present (or more specifically peptide bonds) then the
solution turns lilac-purple.
Amino Acids
Many Amino acids join together to form proteins:
2x Amino Acids = Dipeptide
More than 2 = Polypeptide
Peptide bonds are formed Via Condensation
Reaction and Removed via hydrolysis
As animals we can't store amino acids so the amino
group is removes if excess amino present though a
process of deamination.…read more

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This causes molecules in our proteins to vibrate
If too much heat / kinetic energy is generated bonds will break and loose structure (Enzymes
Quaternary Structure
More than one polypeptide sub-unit together e.g. Haemoglobin + insulin
Structure consists of:
o 2 ­ Chains
o 2 ­ Chains
4 subunits form one haemoglobin molecule which is water soluble.…read more

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Chains are HYDROPHILIC & INSOLUABLE ­ Lots of Energy
Similar to triglyceride but one fatty
acid has been replaced with a phosphate
Hydrophilic phosphate as it ironized (
electronically charged) -> attracts water
Molecules reduces water solubility .…read more

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Cohesive hydrogen molecules `stick' it together. Creates Surface tension ( small pond skaters
can walk on it )
Reactant to chemical reactions ( hydrolysis / Photosynthesis)
Homeostasis ­ Regulation of Body Temp
Polar Molecule
Two Charges
Covalent bonds
Universal Transporter
Controls body Temp HOMEOSTASIS
When freezes ­ Less Dense
High Boiling point.…read more


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