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Biological Molecules

We are made of biological molecule we get these from what we eat, we need food to:

Be used to make the building blocks of us
Used for energy

We get food into our body by eating. This prosses of breaking large molecules down into small
molecules is…

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Catabolic ­ Breaking Down


Forms long chains

Very stable
`back bone'

Biochemical & bonds

Carbon - Vacancy of 4
- Carbon has 4 electrons on the outer shell it needs to have 8 to be stable.
- Carbon shares electrons with other elements to form 4 covalent bonds…

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Condensation & hydrolosis

Biological monomers (monomers ) can be joined together by using condensation reactions
Polymers can be broken down using hydrolysis reactions
Condensation - Anabolic ­ Goes up
Hydrolysis ­ Catabolic ­ Breaks down

Condensation Hydrolysis

Water Removed Water Added

Covalent Bonds Formed Covalent Bonds Broken

Anabolic Catabolic


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Of one molecule and a negative parts of another.


Glucose ­ C6 H12O6
- Energy release during respiration

Other Carbs used for storage e.g. Starch (plant) and Glycogens (animals)
Or for protection and support e.g. cellulose (plants)

One of any of the above is called a monosaccharaides
Two of…

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Glucose + Glucose + Glucose = Amylose (Polysaccharide)

Most glucose exists in Alpha () Glucose (H at Top)
Organisms have the Enzymes to break down the bonds between Alpha glucose molecules.
We don't have the Enzymes to break down Beta ( ) Glucose ( H at Bottom)


The most…

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Biochemical Tests

Reducing Sugars Add Benedict's solution to the sample.

Heat this in a beaker of boiling water.

After a few minutes it should turn brick red for a positive result.

Reducing sugars include glucose, lactose and maltose.
Non-Reducing Boil the sample with hydrochloric acid.
After a few minutes…

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If there is protein present (or more specifically peptide bonds) then the
solution turns lilac-purple.

Amino Acids

Many Amino acids join together to form proteins:

2x Amino Acids = Dipeptide
More than 2 = Polypeptide

Peptide bonds are formed Via Condensation
Reaction and Removed via hydrolysis

As animals we can't…

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This causes molecules in our proteins to vibrate
If too much heat / kinetic energy is generated bonds will break and loose structure (Enzymes

Quaternary Structure

More than one polypeptide sub-unit together e.g. Haemoglobin + insulin


Structure consists of:
o 2 ­ Chains
o 2 ­ Chains

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Chains are HYDROPHILIC & INSOLUABLE ­ Lots of Energy


Similar to triglyceride but one fatty
acid has been replaced with a phosphate
Hydrophilic phosphate as it ironized (
electronically charged) -> attracts water
Molecules reduces water solubility .


Type of triglyceride found in cell membranes for support

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Cohesive hydrogen molecules `stick' it together. Creates Surface tension ( small pond skaters
can walk on it )
Reactant to chemical reactions ( hydrolysis / Photosynthesis)
Homeostasis ­ Regulation of Body Temp
Polar Molecule
Two Charges
Covalent bonds
Universal Transporter
Controls body Temp HOMEOSTASIS
When freezes ­ Less Dense…


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