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Exchange of Materials

The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Occurs in liquids and gases as their particles are free to move about.
Factors affecting the rate of diffusion:
Temperature: the higher the temperature the greater the kinetic energy…

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Cyanide is a deadly poison that smells faintly of almonds; once you have taken it, you quickly die.
It kills you because it stops the reactions of respiration in your mitochondria.
If you give individual cells cyanide all active transport stops as their energy supply dries up.
However, if…

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Exchange in the Gut
The exchange of materials in the gut is extremely important.
The food eaten is broken down in the gut to form simple sugars such
as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol.
These nutrients need to be absorbed into the blood across the wall
of the…

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The Respiratory System in Insects
Insects have an internal respiratory system which supplies oxygen directly to their cells and removes
carbon dioxide.
They have spiracles which open when oxygen is needed but close when it isn't.
This prevents water loss.
The spiracles lead to a system of tubes which run…

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Uptake of Water and Mineral Ions
The roots in a plant are adapted to enable plants to take water and
minerals from the soil as efficiently as possible.
The roots are thin, divided tubes with a large surface area.
The root hair cells on the ouside of the roots are…


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