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Deceiving Participants
· Confederates - Participants can be deceived by using confederates,
this is unethical as participants don't know that people they think are
their fellow participants, are involved.
· Hiding the True Aim ­ Researchers that hide the true aim of the
study are deceiving the participants as they are not telling them what
they are really trying to find out.
· Hiding the Study ­ Some researchers hide the study so that they
can get true to life results and not risk demand characteristics. This
is unethical as participants are not able to give consent to take part if
they don't know about the study.
Some studies that used deception include ­ Asch, Milgram, Loftus…read more

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· When participants agree to take part in a study, they give their
name, age etc. This is confidential information, which should not be
presented to anyone other than the experimenter and should be
kept entirely between the participant and the researcher.
· The participants should not be identifiable to other psychologists or
students who are learning about certain studies.
· Researchers should assure participants that no personal information
will be given out and will remain confidential, even after the
experiment.…read more

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Harm to Participants
· Types of Harm ­ psychological harm, physical harm, mental harm,
emotional harm etc.
· As a researcher, you must ensure that no harm will come to your
participant at any time.
· If harm is a risk to participants, then animals can be used instead of
humans. Although other ethical issues are raised for animals, they
are less severe than issues raised for humans.
· All participants should be given psychological tests before and after
the partake in the study. They should leave in the same
psychological state as they came in.…read more

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Informed Consent
· In order for ethical issues to be dealt with; informed consent has to
be given.
· Some studies are conducted entirely through deception.
· Participants should be aware of the aims of the study.
· A weakness of giving informed consent is that it can risk demand
· If participants do not give informed consent, and they are deceived;
then to stop any psychological harm; they must be debriefed. This
means that they must be told the true aim of the study and told
exactly what happened to them and why.
· Afterwards, they may be given the opportunity to give consent for
their individual results to be used.…read more


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